Bier's Block Versus Systemic Analgesia


Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

Status and phase

Phase 2


Distal Radius Fracture


Procedure: Intravenous Regional Anesthesia
Drug: Systemic Analgesia

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Background: There are three methods for procedural sedation in upper extremity traumas; systemic, regional and local anesthesia. There is controversy in the literature regarding the method of choice for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare conscious sedation and Bier's block methods for pain reduction in upper extremity trauma patients. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated to either the Bier's block or the conscious sedation group. Pain reduction was assessed by a numerical rating scale; patients, surgeons and physicians responsible for analgesia satisfaction were assessed using a five-point Likert scale. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness, complications, duration, hemodynamic stability and patient and physician satisfaction between systemic analgesia and Bier's block method performed at the emergency department.

Full description

Patients and Methods Study Design This is a randomized clinical trial to be conducted at two tertiary health care centers, with census of 102000 and 60000 visits per year, during years 2017 and 2018. The study design has been approved by ethics committee of the university. Informed consents will be obtained from patients. And patients who refuse to participate in the study are excluded from the study and will receive analgesia based on the physician responsible for analgesia preference. Population All adult patients (aged 18 or more) with upper extremity trauma who need procedural analgesia in the ED are included in this study. Patients with a history of seizure, known allergy to analgesic substances, sickle cell anemia, peripheral vascular disease and arteriovenous fistula or infection in upper extremities are excluded from the study. Patients who need emergent intervention/s that last more than one hour are also excluded from the study. Randomization is done using sealed envelopes containing computer-generated block random allocation numbers. Intervention After introduction of the protocol of Bier's block (using 1.5 mg/kg of 0.5% lidocaine) or systemic analgesia (using ketamine 1.5 mg/kg), patients underwent the necessary procedure. Physicians who were responsible for the analgesia, had authority to change the method of analgesia in each group, if necessary. Measurements Patient's age, sex, site and type of injury, vital signs and pain score using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) will be recorded before the introduction of analgesia. Patient's vital signs are documented at the end of the procedure. Satisfaction of the patient, surgeon and physician responsible for analgesia for the applied analgesic method is obtained before discharge from the ED operating room. Patients also score their level of pain before discharge and their vital signs are recorded at another instance. Time of initiation of analgesia, initiation of procedure, end of procedure, and gaining consciousness in systemic analgesia group and time of discharge from ED operating room are documented and patients will be discharged from the ED operating room when eligible.


70 patients




18 to 60 years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

All adult patients (aged 18 or more) with upper extremity trauma who need procedural analgesia

Exclusion criteria

  • Patients with a history of seizure
  • Known allergy to analgesic substances
  • Sickle cell anemia,
  • Peripheral vascular disease and arteriovenous fistula
  • Infection in upper extremities
  • Patients who need emergent intervention/s that last more than one hour are also excluded from the study.

Trial design

70 participants in 2 patient groups

Intravenous regional Analgesia
Experimental group
in this arm patients will receive intravenous regional anesthesia as infusion of mini dose (that is 1.5 mg/kg ) lidocaine 0.5% and immediately after procedure their torniquettes will be deflated (hence named Rapid MiniBier's block).
Procedure: Intravenous Regional Anesthesia
Systemic Analgesia
Experimental group
In this arm patients will receive ketamine 1-2 mg/kg IV slow as a systemic analgesia. ketamine as a PCP derivative has both hypnotic and analgesic effects.
Drug: Systemic Analgesia

Trial contacts and locations



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