Breastfeeding in Infancy and Food Intake in Preschool-Aged Children

T

The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Status

Completed

Conditions

Childhood Obesity
Breastfeeding

Treatments

Other: Low Energy Density Preload
Other: High Energy Density Preload

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT00994487
7828B

Details and patient eligibility

About

The purpose of this study is to compare female, preschool-aged children breastfed during infancy to female, preschool-aged children bottle-fed during infancy in their ability to adjust calorie intake in response to internal signals of hunger and fullness. Children and a parent will come to two sessions, with the children given drinks that are either high or low in energy, and then consume a lunch following the drink. The parent will be present during the lunch. Greater ability to self-regulate intake is demonstrated when less energy is consumed at lunch following the high energy drink as compared to the lunch following the low energy drink. Lunches will be videotaped so that parental feeding styles (i.e., how the parent interacted with the child during lunch) can be examined. The primary hypotheses are: 1.) the exclusively breastfed children will have higher self-regulation ability than the exclusively bottle-fed children, and 2.) the mothers of the exclusively breastfed children will demonstrate a parental feeding style characterized by less control and restriction than the mothers (or parent primarily responsible for child feeding) of the exclusively bottle-fed children.

Full description

Research reports that children who were breastfed as infants have a decreased risk of becoming obese. However, it is not clear how breastfeeding may prevent the development of obesity. Breastfeeding may support the maintenance of sensitivity to internal hunger/fullness cues, which helps with self-regulating energy intake. Additionally, breastfeeding may facilitate the development of a parental feeding style low in control or restriction. This type of feeding style is also associated with greater ability to self-regulate energy intake. Bottle-feeding shifts feeding control to parents, and may lead to a parental feeding style high in control or restriction, impairing children's self-regulation abilities. The aims of this study are to determine in females aged 3-5 years if: 1.) breastfed children have greater energy self- regulation capabilities; 2.) parents of breastfed children demonstrate a parental feeding style characterized by less control or restriction; and 3.) children with the greatest energy self-regulation capabilities were breastfed and have parents with feeding styles lowest in control or restriction. It is hypothesized that female, preschool-aged children breastfed and/or parented with a feeding style low in control or restriction self-regulate intake better than females not breastfed and/or parented with a feeding style high in control or restriction. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design, using a standard preloading paradigm, will measure children's ability to self-regulate intake to preloads of differing energy densities. Children and a parent will participate in two trials, with children consuming preloads high and low in energy followed by a lunch in which energy intake is measured. Lunch will be videotaped so parental feeding style during the child's lunch can be coded for restriction and control. Results will provide information about potential mechanisms by which breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity and obesity related diseases in children.

Enrollment

7 patients

Sex

Female

Ages

3 to 5 years old

Volunteers

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Children will be eligible for study participation if they meet the following criteria:

  • female
  • BMI between the 5th and the 85th percentile
  • were of normal birth weight (>2500 g)
  • full-term
  • have no chronic disease conditions effecting growth and intake
  • have not been in foster care for longer than one month (if at all)
  • are between 3 and 5 years of age
  • are willing to consume and are not allergic to the preloads and meals used in the study
  • are not lactose-intolerant
  • have a parent who is able to recall mode of feeding in infancy and was either exclusively breast-fed from birth to 3 months of age (defined as being fed from a bottle on average < 1 time per week from birth to 3 months of age, with all other feedings from the breast) or was exclusively bottle-fed from birth to 3 months of age (defined as being completely bottle-fed, with feedings comprised of formula and/or breastmilk)
  • have a parent willing to transport child to the University of Tennessee lab at two different times during their participation in the project

Trial design

Primary purpose

Basic Science

Allocation

Non-Randomized

Interventional model

Crossover Assignment

Masking

Single Blind

7 participants in 2 patient groups

Breastfed child
Experimental group
Description:
Female, normal weight, 3 to 5 year old children, exclusively breastfed from birth to 3 months of age
Treatment:
Other: High Energy Density Preload
Other: Low Energy Density Preload
Bottle Fed Child
Active Comparator group
Description:
Female, normal weight, 3 to 5 year old children, exclusively bottle fed from birth to 3 months of age
Treatment:
Other: High Energy Density Preload
Other: Low Energy Density Preload

Trial contacts and locations

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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