Crystalloid Liberal or Vasopressors Early Resuscitation in Sepsis (CLOVERS)

Mass General Brigham logo

Mass General Brigham

Status and phase

Phase 3


Septic Shock


Drug: Early Vasopressors
Other: Early Fluids

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Multicenter, prospective, phase 3 randomized non-blinded interventional trial of fluid treatment strategies in the first 24 hours for patients with sepsis-induced hypotension. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of a restrictive fluids strategy (vasopressors first followed by rescue fluids) as compared to a liberal fluid strategy (fluids first followed by rescue vasopressors) on 90-day in-hospital mortality in patients with sepsis-induced hypotension.

Full description

Primary Hypothesis: Restrictive (vs liberal) fluid treatment strategy during the first 24 hours of resuscitation for sepsis-induced hypotension will reduce 90-day in-hospital mortality. We will emphasize early screening and protocol initiation, and enroll a maximum of 2320 patients with suspected sepsis-induced hypotension. All patients will receive at least 1 liter of fluids prior to meeting study inclusion criteria (and no more than 3 liters prior to randomization). Patients will be enrolled within 4 hours of meeting study inclusion criteria Any type of isotonic crystalloid (normal saline, ringers lactate, or a balanced solution such as plasmalyte) is permitted. Restrictive Fluids (Early Vasopressors) Group Norepinephrine will be used as preferred vasopressor and titrated to achieve mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 65 mmHg and 75 mmHg "Rescue fluids" may be administered as 500ml boluses if predefined rescue criteria are met Liberal Fluids (Fluids First) 2 liter infusion upon enrollment (may forego second liter if MAP/SBP and heart rate are normalized and clinical assessment if patient is fluid replete after the first liter). Administer 500ml fluid boluses for fluid triggers until 5 liters administered or development of clinical signs of acute volume overload develop "Rescue vasopressors" may be administered after 5 liters of fluid, for development of acute volume overload, or if other predefined rescue criteria are met


1,563 patients




18+ years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Age ≥ 18 years
  • A suspected or confirmed infection (broadly defined by administration or planned administration of antibiotics)
  • Sepsis-induced hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg or MAP < 65 mmHg after a minimum of at least 1 liter of fluid (*Fluids inclusive of pre-hospital fluids; blood pressure must be below any known or reported pre-morbid baseline).

Exclusion criteria

  • More than 4 hours elapsed since meeting inclusion criteria or 24 hours elapsed since admission to the hospital
  • Patient already received 3 liters of intravenous fluid (includes prehospital volumes)
  • Unable to obtain informed consent
  • Known pregnancy
  • Hypotension suspected to be due to non-sepsis cause (e.g. hemorrhagic shock)
  • Blood pressure is at known or reported baseline level
  • Severe Volume Depletion from an acute condition other than sepsis. In the judgment of the treating physician, the patient has an acute condition other than sepsis causing (or indicative) of *severe volume depletion; Examples include: Diabetic ketoacidosis, high volume vomiting or diarrhea, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and nonexertional hyperthermia (heat stroke); severe is defined by the need for substantial intravenous fluid administration as part of routine clinical care
  • Pulmonary edema or clinical signs of new fluid overload (e.g. bilateral crackles, new oxygen requirement, new peripheral edema, fluid overload on chest x-ray)
  • Treating physician unwilling to give additional fluids as directed by the liberal protocol
  • Treating physician unwilling to use vasopressors as directed by the restrictive protocol.
  • Current or imminent decision to withhold most/all life-sustaining treatment; this does not exclude those patients committed to full support except cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Immediate surgical intervention planned such that study procedures could not be followed
  • Prior enrollment in this study

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


None (Open label)

1,563 participants in 2 patient groups

Restrictive Fluids
Other group
The general approach will be to use vasopressors to treat hypotension as opposed to intravenous fluids. Maintenance fluids should not be used.
Drug: Early Vasopressors
Liberal Fluids
Other group
The general approach is to use fluid boluses to treat hypotension.
Other: Early Fluids

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from

Clinical trials

Find clinical trialsTrials by location
© Copyright 2024 Veeva Systems