Dinutuximab in Combination With Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Recurrent Osteosarcoma

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National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Status and phase

Phase 2


Recurrent Osteosarcoma
Metastatic Osteosarcoma
Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Lung


Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Other: Pharmacological Study
Biological: Dinutuximab
Biological: Sargramostim

Study type


Funder types



U10CA180886 (U.S. NIH Grant/Contract)
NCI-2015-01001 (Registry Identifier)

Details and patient eligibility


This phase II trial studies how well dinutuximab works when given with sargramostim in treating patients with osteosarcoma that has come back after treatment (recurrent). Monoclonal antibodies, such as dinutuximab, may find tumor cells and help kill them. Sargramostim may help the body increase the amount of white blood cells it produces, which help the body fight off infections. Giving dinutuximab with sargramostim may work better and kill more cancer cells.

Full description

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To determine the disease control rate in patients with completely resected recurrent osteosarcoma treated with ch14.18 (dinutuximab) in combination with sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) as compared to historical Children's Oncology Group (COG) experience. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: I. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of ch14.18 (dinutuximab) in patients with recurrent osteosarcoma. II. To determine the occurrence of unacceptable toxicity (UT) in patients with recurrent osteosarcoma treated with ch14.18 (dinutuximab) in combination with sargramostim. III. To assess the relationship between probability of disease control and tumor ganglioside GD2 (GD2) expression. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES: I. To assess the relationship between probability of disease control and tumor GD2 expression. II. To assess KIR and Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR) genotypes, NKp30 isoforms and its circulating ligand, B7-H6, and their relationships to the probability of disease control. III. To attempt banking of tumor samples for future research studies from patients enrolled on study who undergo biopsy or resection of suspected metastatic disease recurrence while on protocol therapy or during the evaluation period. IV. To determine a descriptive profile of human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) during immunotherapy. V. To bank serial plasma samples for future studies of circulating tumor deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) detection as a marker of disease progression and response. OUTLINE: Patients receive sargramostim subcutaneously (SC) once daily (QD) on days 1-14 and dinutuximab intravenously (IV) over 10 hours on days 4-7 (dinutuximab infusion may be extended up to a total of 20 hours per day for anticipated toxicities). Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 5 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 8 and 12 months.


41 patients




Under 29 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

Patients must have histologic diagnosis of osteosarcoma at original diagnosis

Patients must have had at least one episode of disease recurrence in the lungs without limitation on number of episodes of recurrence as long as they meet the following criteria:

Surgical resection of all possible sites of suspected pulmonary metastases in order to achieve a complete remission within 4 weeks prior to study enrollment**

Pathologic confirmation of metastases from at least one of the resected sites

  • For patients with bilateral pulmonary metastases, resection must be performed from both lungs and the study enrollment must be within 4 weeks from date of the last lung surgery
  • Note: If surgery related changes such as atelectasis are seen on the post-operative computed tomography (CT) scan, patients will remain eligible to enroll as long as the operating surgeon believes that all sites of metastases were resected; patients with positive microscopic margins will be eligible to enroll
  • Patient must have adequate tumor specimen available for submission
  • Patients must have a performance status corresponding to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores of 0, 1 or 2; use Karnofsky for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky for patients =< 16 years of age

Patients must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to entering this study

  • Myelosuppressive anti-cancer therapy: must not have been received within 2 weeks of study entry (4 weeks if prior nitrosourea)
  • Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): at least 7 days since the completion of therapy with a biologic agent
  • Radiation therapy (RT): >= 2 weeks for local palliative radiation therapy (RT) (small port); >= 6 weeks must have elapsed if prior craniospinal RT or if >= 50% radiation of pelvis; >= 6 weeks must have elapsed if other substantial bone marrow (BM) radiation
  • Surgery: >= 2 weeks from last major surgery, including pulmonary metastasectomy, with the exclusion of a central line placement and core needle or small open biopsies
  • Patient must not have received pegfilgrastim within 14 days of enrollment
  • Patient must not have received filgrastim (G-CSF, Neupogen) within 7 days of enrollment

Patient must not have received immune suppressants: corticosteroids (for other than allergic reactions and anaphylaxis), cyclosporine or tacrolimus within 7 days of enrollment

  • Note: the use of topical and/or inhalational steroids is allowed
  • Total absolute phagocyte count (APC = [%neutrophils + %monocytes) x white blood cells [WBC]) is at least 1000/uL
  • Platelet count >= 50,000/uL
  • Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 70 mL/min/1.73 m^2 or

A serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows:

  • 1 month to < 6 months: 0.4 (male) 0.4 (female)
  • 6 months to < 1 year: 0.5 (male), 0.5 (female)
  • 1 to < 2 years: 0.6 (male), 0.6 (female)
  • 2 to < 6 years: 0.8 (male), 0.8 (female)
  • 6 to < 10 years: 1 (male), 1 (female)
  • 10 to < 13 years: 1.2 (male), 1.2 (female)
  • 13 to < 16 years: 1.5 (male), 1.4 (female)
  • >= 16 years: 1.7 (male), 1.4 (female)
  • Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age
  • Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) =< 110 U/L (for the purpose of this study, the ULN for SGPT is 45 U/L)
  • Serum albumin >= 2 g/dL
  • Baseline electrocardiogram (EKG) shows normal corrected QT interval (QTc) interval of =< 470 milliseconds (ms)
  • Shortening fraction of >= 27% by echocardiogram, or
  • Ejection fraction of >= 50% by radionuclide angiogram or echocardiogram
  • No evidence of dyspnea at rest, no history of exercise intolerance, and a pulse oximetry > 94%
  • Patient has no known history of seizure disorder
  • Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity including peripheral neuropathy =< grade 2

Exclusion criteria

  • Patients with distant bone metastases at original diagnosis or relapse (patients with only skip lesions will be eligible)
  • Patients with concurrent local and pulmonary recurrence at the time of enrollment; note: patients who had local recurrence previously that has been treated and now present with an isolated pulmonary recurrence and meet the surgical resection criteria stated above will be eligible
  • Patients with primary refractory disease with progression of the primary tumor on initial therapy
  • Patients with CNS disease or other sites of extra-pulmonary metastases at the time of most recent episode of disease recurrence preceding enrollment
  • Patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to sargramostim
  • Patients who have received prior anti-GD2 therapy, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against GD2 antigen
  • Female patients who are pregnant are ineligible
  • Lactating females are not eligible unless they have agreed not to breastfeed their infants
  • Female patients of childbearing potential are not eligible unless a negative pregnancy test result has been obtained
  • Sexually active patients of reproductive potential are not eligible unless they have agreed to use an effective contraceptive method for the duration of their study participation; patients should maintain adequate contraception for a minimum of 2 months after the last dose of ch14.18 (dinutuximab)

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Single Group Assignment


None (Open label)

41 participants in 1 patient group

Treatment (sargramostim and dinutuximab)
Experimental group
Patients receive sargramostim SC QD on days 1-14 and dinutuximab IV over 10 hours on days 4-7 (dinutuximab infusion may be extended up to a total of 20 hours per day for anticipated toxicities). Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 5 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Biological: Sargramostim
Biological: Dinutuximab
Other: Pharmacological Study
Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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