Disulfiram and Copper Gluconate With Temozolomide in Unmethylated Glioblastoma Multiforme

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Advocate Aurora Health

Status and phase

Phase 2


Glioblastoma Multiforme


Drug: Disulfiram
Drug: Temozolomide
Dietary Supplement: Copper gluconate

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


One of Disulfiram antitumor effects suggested in preclinical studies is MGMT (methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase) inhibition. Disulfiram MGMT inhibitory effect is enhanced by addition of Copper. This study evaluates the impact of Disulfiram (DSF) + Copper (Cu) combination when added to standard Temozolomide in the treatment of unmethylated Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients.

Full description

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor and one of the most devastating cancers. The current standard of care for glioblastoma includes maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide, which results in a median progression-free survival of less than 7 months, and median overall survival (OS) of less than 15 months. Moreover, patients with unmethylated glioblastoma respond poorly to this current standard treatment. This clinical trial evaluates the potential role of continuous, upfront use of Disulfiram in combination with Copper gluconate in enhancing temozolomide effect in the treatment of unmethylated Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients.


15 patients




18+ years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Age 18 or older

  • Diagnosis of histologically confirmed glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). Subjects with an original histologic diagnosis of low grade glioma or anaplastic glioma (WHO grade II or III) are eligible if a subsequent histological diagnosis of glioblastoma is made

  • Patients whose tumor is determined to be unmethylated

  • Patients with incomplete resection as determined by residual, measurable gadolinium or contrast-enhancing lesion or lesions

  • Recent resection of glioblastoma within 4 weeks of study entry. Patients who have only had a tumor biopsy and who are considered unresectable are eligible (but based on the study accrual this subset of patients with unresectable tumor may be considered for separate analysis)

  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) of ≤ 2 (see appendix A)

  • Willing to remain abstinent from consuming alcohol while on DSF

  • No prior radiation or chemotherapy

  • Meets the following laboratory criteria:

    • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,500/mcL (microliter)
    • Platelets ≥ 100,000/mcL
    • Hemoglobin > 10.0 g/dL (grams/deciliter) (transfusion and/or ESA (erythropoiesis-stimulating agent) allowed)
    • Total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN)
    • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) < 3 x ULN
    • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine < 1.5 x ULN
  • Able to take oral medication

  • Able to understand and willing to sign an institutional review board (IRB)-approved written informed consent document (legally authorized representative permitted)

Exclusion criteria

  • Radiographic evidence of leptomeningeal dissemination, extensive intraparenchymal dissemination, infratentorial tumor, or metastatic disease to sites remote from the supratentorial brain
  • Enrolled in another clinical trial testing a novel therapy or drug
  • Received prior radiation therapy or chemotherapy for glioblastoma
  • History of allergic reaction/hypersensitivity to DSF (without alcohol) or copper.
  • Treatment with the following medications that may interfere with metabolism of DSF: warfarin (unless otherwise chosen by the study PI who will actively adjust Coumadin dose to consistently maintain a safe, therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) < 3, theophylline, amitriptyline, isoniazid, metronidazole, phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlorzoxazone, halothane, imipramine, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam. (Note: lorazepam and oxazepam are not affected by the P450 system and are not contraindicated with DSF).
  • Active severe hepatic or renal disease
  • Grade 2 or higher peripheral neuropathy or ataxia per NCI CTCAE version 4.0 (2009)
  • History of idiopathic seizure disorder schizophrenia, or psychosis unrelated to glioblastoma, corticosteroid, or anti-epileptic medications
  • History of Wilson's or Gilbert's disease
  • Current excessive use of alcohol

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Single Group Assignment


None (Open label)

15 participants in 1 patient group

DSF-Cu with temozolomide and radiation
Experimental group
Disulfiram (DSF; oral) / copper gluconate (Cu; oral) dosed at 125 mg / 2 mg, twice daily. Temozolomide will be administered following the standard Stupp protocol at a dose of 75 mg/m2 for 42 days with concurrent radiation therapy. Temozolomide maintenance dose will be 150 mg/m2 once daily on Days 1-5 of every 28-day cycle while DSF-Cu is continued twice daily, as tolerated, for the duration of the Temozolomide adjuvant treatment. Patients demonstrating continued benefit from the adjuvant temozolomide after 6 cycles can continue treatment to a maximum of 12 cycles
Dietary Supplement: Copper gluconate
Drug: Temozolomide
Drug: Disulfiram

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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