Effect of Dual-wave Insulin Bolus on Postprandial Glycaemia


Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki




Type1 Diabetes


Drug: insulin

Study type


Funder types



Dual-wave insulin

Details and patient eligibility


A study was conducted in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) examining the effect of different bolus types on 6-h postprandial glucose levels after the consumption of 3 standard meals with varying composition. Participants were asked to consume 10 different combinations of meal and bolus type.

Full description

The nutritional recommendations of children and adolescents with T1D should be similar to those of healthy people in order to achieve the desirable growth. Not only the carbohydrates' intake is underlined according to special guidelines by Canadian diabetes association, American diabetes association and International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes but also proteins and fats are suggested to be taken into consideration in the management of T1D. In order to reach the desirable euglycemic control, children and adolescents can use multiple daily injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). By using the CSII the insulin can be administrated in three different patterns; as a normal bolus, as a dual wave bolus and as a square wave bolus. Dual wave insulin bolus (D/WB) is suggested as the most suitable option based on the effects that is having after meals with different content of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different types of D/WB on PPG after 3 given meals, in adolescents with T1D on CSII. In order to achieve that, 3 different meals were designed and combined with alternative types of boluses, D/WB and square wave insulin bolus (S/WB).


10 patients




11 to 20 years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

duration of T1D >3 years, CSII therapy for at least 1 year, good to moderate glycaemic control, as evidenced by HbA1c levels <8.5% (69 mmol/mol).

Exclusion criteria

Subjects with eating disorders, food allergy, celiac disease and known diabetic complications

Trial design

10 participants in 2 patient groups

Adolescents with T1D on CSII
Active Comparator group
3 standard meals with varying composition were consumed and combined with alternative types of D/WB and S/WB All participants used the rapid-acting insulin analogue aspart (NovoRapid®, Novonordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) and total insulin dose administered to each one for each test meal was known in advance, according to the insulin to carbohydrate ratio that had been calculated during the 2-week pre-study period.
Drug: insulin
Healthy adolescents
No Intervention group
3 standard meals with varying composition were consumed

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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