Effectiveness of Handwriting Training Program on Handwriting Performance in Cerebral Palsy

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Chang Gung Medical Foundation

Status

Completed

Conditions

Cerebral Palsy

Treatments

Other: interactive computerized handwriting training program
Other: traditional handwriting training program

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT01378455
98-3193B

Details and patient eligibility

About

Visual perception impairment and upper limb disability will affect the handwriting performance. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have good function on upper extremity may associated with visual perception impairment, which will impact the handwriting performance. However, there were few studies to investigate the handwriting problems in children with CP who have good upper limb functions. To date, there are no studies to investigate the effectiveness of computerized handwriting training programs on handwriting performance in children with CP. The aims of this study were to establish the relationships of visual perception, visual motor integration, and motor coordination of handwriting performance in children with typical development (TD) in Taiwan, to establish the norms of handwriting performance in children with TD in Taiwan, to compare handwriting performance in children with CP and children with TD, to clarify the relationship of visual perception function and handwriting performance in children with CP, and to examine the effectiveness of interactive computerized handwriting training program (ICHTP) on handwriting performance in children with CP. The investigators will collect 90 children with TD and 48 children with CP in the 1st phase. All children will receive clinical and Chinese handwriting assessment tool (CHAT) assessments. The CHAT and ICHTP will be modified as Taiwan-version handwriting assessment tool and training programs for children in Taiwan, respectively. Clinical assessments include the visual perception, visual motor integration, fine motor skill, and handwriting performance. The CHAT assessed the handwriting legibility, accuracy, pen pressure and writing speed. In the 2nd phase, the investigators will collect 48 children with CP, who were randomly classified into ICHTP group and Traditional Handwriting Training Program (THTP). All children with CP will receive clinical and CHAT assessments before and after interventions. The expected results of this study are the visual perception function is related to handwriting performance in children with CP, and the improvements in the handwriting legibility, accuracy, pen pressure and writing speed of ICHTP training group are greater than THTP training group.

Full description

This study were to establish the relationships of visual perception, visual motor integration, and motor coordination of handwriting performance in children with TD in Taiwan, to establish the norms of handwriting performance in children with TD in Taiwan, to compare handwriting performance in children with CP and children with TD, to clarify the relationship of visual perception function and handwriting performance in children with CP in the first phase, and to examine the effectiveness of interactive computerized handwriting training program (ICHTP) via a randomized controlled study in children with CP in the second phase.The subjects are ninety children with typical development aged between 6-12 years from elementary school and forty-eight children with CP aged between 6-12 years from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taipei branch, Linkou branch, Taoyuan branch, Kaohsiung branch), Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital (Taipei branch)etc.Experimental design In first phase, we establish the relationships of visual perception, visual motor integration, and motor coordination of handwriting performance in children with TD in Taiwan, to establish the norms of handwriting performance in children with TD among different age groups in Taiwan, a comparison designed study to compare the handwriting performance among 2 CP groups and TD groups. All children were assigned into diplegia group, hemiplegia group, and typical development (TD) group. Then we will assessment the fine motor skill, visual perception and handwriting performance by occupational therapist. Experimental procedures: All children were assessed with clinical assessments and the Chinese handwriting assessment tool (CHAT). Clinical assessments included Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-second edition (BOT-II), the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills Revised (TVPS-R), Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Berry VMI) and comprehensive test of basic reading and writing. Evaluations were performed in about 1.5-2 hours in a silent and restful room, eliminating factors such as fatigue and distraction of attention and concentration, which could have an impact on the results. All the tests used in the study were individually administered to all children. The performance of all children was videotaped for later scoring. In second phase, all CP children were randomized assigned into ICHTP group or THTP group. All participations will received clinical and CHAT assessments before and after intervention. Clinical assessments included Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-second edition (BOT-II), the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills Revised (TVPS-R), Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Berry VMI) and comprehensive test of basic reading and writing. Evaluations were performed in about 2 hours in a silent and restful room, eliminating factors such as fatigue and distraction of attention and concentration, which could have an impact on the results. All the tests used in the study were individually administered to all children. The performance of all children was videotaped for later scoring. The intervention consisted of ICHTP and THTP training programs, which is 45 min/once, three times/one week, and sustain four weeks.

Enrollment

20 patients

Sex

All

Ages

6 to 12 years old

Volunteers

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • ability to follow instructions and complete the assessment
  • agreement to join this study.
  • CP with hemiplegia and diplegia
  • Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) of dominant hand: levels 1-2

Exclusion criteria

  • psychosocial, behavioral and emotional problems, such as ADHD, and autism.
  • physical dysfunction, such as neuromuscular disorders.
  • significant hearing or visual impairment
  • significant sensory impairment.
  • Learning disability
  • Test of Nonverbal Intelligence( TONI-2) less than two standard deviation,
  • unstable medical situation (ex: seizure).

Trial design

Primary purpose

Treatment

Allocation

Randomized

Interventional model

Parallel Assignment

Masking

Single Blind

20 participants in 2 patient groups

ICHTP group
Experimental group
Description:
In ICHTP (interactive computerized handwriting training program) group, they received the training of visual-perception .visual-motor integration skill of children and modulate muscle strength of grasp through ICHTP software
Treatment:
Other: interactive computerized handwriting training program
THTP group
Active Comparator group
Description:
The THTP (traditional handwriting training program)group ,they received the training of paper-pencil activities with visual-perception and visual-motor integration skills
Treatment:
Other: traditional handwriting training program

Trial contacts and locations

0

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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