Effects of Individual and Group Occupational Therapy on General Self-Efficacy, Psychological Well-Being, Personal Independence and Occupational Therapy in Older Adults

U

University of Malaga

Status

Completed

Conditions

Well-being
Self-Efficacy
Individuality

Treatments

Behavioral: Individual Occupational Therapy
Behavioral: Group Occupational Therapy

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT02906306
01/2012

Details and patient eligibility

About

The objective of this study is to determine whether individual and/or group occupational therapy leads to changes in generalized self-efficacy and psychological well-being, and to identify the type of therapy that has the best effects on older adults.

Full description

Objective The main objective of this study is to determine whether individual and/or group occupational therapy leads to changes in generalized self-efficacy and psychological well-being, and to identify the type of therapy that has the best effects on the population of older adults. In addition, the investigators aim to determine whether there is a relationship between the different domains of psychological well-being and the sense of general self-efficacy. Design The research draws on a randomized experimental intervention study with a pre-post design. It compares two groups: one receiving individual therapy and the other, group therapy. Setting The intervention was conducted at two state-assisted residential care centers for older adults in Málaga (Spain). Each participant was first interviewed to gather sociodemographic data (age, gender, education level) as well as to verify that their scores for cognitive levels and the required skills and capabilities were sufficient to participate in the study. During this interview, the aim and length of the intervention was explained and an invitation to participate was given. All participants gave their informed consent. The care center and the Ethics Committee of the University of Málaga authorized the study. The same cognitive and emotional screening was conducted before and after the intervention. In each care center participants were randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. Subjects From an initial sample of 112 residents, a final sample of 74, divided into two groups of 37, was included in the study. For both groups, the inclusion criteria were: 1) able to read; 2) having normal cognitive function, scoring >22 on the Mini Mental Scale Examination, the cut-off point according to the scoring instructions of the adapted version for the Spanish population. Method In April 2014, after the sample was selected, participants were randomized to two groups of 34. Following assessment, the intervention began in May. The intervention lasted 6 months, after which participants were re-assessed. The instruments used were Van Dierendonck's Spanish adaptation of Ryff´s Psychological Well-being Scale, comprising 39 items and with an internal consistency of between 0.78 and 0.81 and the Spanish adaptation of Schwarzer and Jerusalem's General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), with an internal consistency of 0.84 (Cronbach's alpha). Activities were conducted in three 45-minute sessions per week. In both treatment modalities the activities included personal independence training (ADLs), sensory-motor stimulation activities, cognitive stimulation (attention, memory, language and executive function) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT). The group occupational therapy participants also received psychosocial skills training. To describe the sample, the investigators used descriptive statistics for quantitative and qualitative variables. To analyze differences in the main study variables we applied the t-student test or the Mann-Whitney U test, depending on whether or not they followed a normal distribution. Chi square testing was used to determine the existence of differences in distribution by gender, age and educational level. To analyze the main dependent variables (self-efficacy and well-being) we conducted a repeated measures ANOVA for intra-subject and inter-subject factors. Statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 21.0.

Enrollment

112 patients

Sex

All

Ages

78 to 95 years old

Volunteers

No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Be able to read
  • Have normal cognitive function scoring >22 on Mini Mental Scale Examination
  • Sign informant consent
  • Apply the recommendations

Exclusion criteria

  • Advanced cognitive impairment
  • Fear of animals
  • Miss three time
  • Visual impairment
  • Multiple disorders
  • Hearing impairment

Trial design

Primary purpose

Supportive Care

Allocation

Randomized

Interventional model

Parallel Assignment

Masking

Single Blind

112 participants in 2 patient groups

Individual Occupational therapy
Experimental group
Description:
In Individual Occupational Therapy treatment the activities included personal independence training (ADLs), sensory-motor stimulation activities, cognitive stimulation (attention, memory, language and executive function) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT).
Treatment:
Behavioral: Individual Occupational Therapy
Group Occupational therapy
Experimental group
Description:
In group Occupational Therapy treatment the activities included personal independence training (ADLs), sensory-motor stimulation activities, cognitive stimulation (attention, memory, language and executive function) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and psychosocial skills training.
Treatment:
Behavioral: Group Occupational Therapy

Trial contacts and locations

0

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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