Efficacy and Safety of Rapid Intermittent Correction Compared With Slow Continuous Correction in Patients With Severe Hypernatremia (SALSAII)

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Seoul National University

Status and phase

Enrolling
Phase 4

Conditions

Hypernatremia

Treatments

Drug: Dextrose 5% in water

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT04949139
B-2104-680-003

Details and patient eligibility

About

This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of rapid intermittent correction and slow correction with an electrolyte-free solution in patients with severe hypernatremia (glucose-corrected serum sodium, ≥ 155 mmol/L).

Full description

Hypernatremia is defined as serum sodium (sNa) levels above 145 mmol/L and is caused by abnormalities in water balance, mainly in children, elderly, and critically ill patients. It occurs in 3% of hospitalized patients and in 9% of critically ill patients. Hypernatremia indicates hypertonic hyperosmolality and causes water outflow, resulting in cell dehydration. Most of the symptoms and signs of hypernatremia are due to brain abnormalities, which can progress to hyperventilation, muscle weakness, consciousness (lethargy), and coma. The short-term mortality rate of hypernatremia is 50%-60%. Decreased osmotic pressure in the extracellular fluid during correction of hyponatremia can cause cellular edema and permanent brain damage. The recommended sNa correction rate for acute hypernatremia is up to 1 mmol/L/h, whereas that for chronic hypernatremia is less than 0.5 mmol/L/h (approximately 10 mmol/L/day). However, these correction rates have only been studied and proven in pediatric patients. A recent study conducted on adults revealed that rapid correction (more than 0.5 mmol/L/h) was not associated with a higher risk for mortality, seizures, and alteration of consciousness. Several studies reported that excessively slow rates of sNa correction were associated with higher mortality, whereas rapid rates demonstrated lower mortality. There are no established guidelines for the Na correction rate for hypernatremia. The European and American guidelines recommend infusion of electrolyte-free water (10 mL/kg over 1 h or 3 mL/kg/h) for the management of overcorrection of hyponatremia. In the previously published SALSA I trial, 10 mL/kg over 1 h was applied as a method of re-lowering treatment in overly rapid correction of hyponatremia. However, this rapid intermittent bolus of electrolyte-free water has never been applied to treat hypernatremia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, open-labeled, multi-center, and investigator-initiated trial is to determine whether a rapid and intermittent bolus of electrolyte-free water in hypernatremia can increase the incidence of rapid decrease in sNa level and increase the survival time compared to the slow continuous administration method. A total of 166 patients with severe hypernatremia will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either intermittent bolus or slow continuous infusion of 5% dextrose water. The participants will be divided into three groups according to age and sex and will receive 5% dextrose water for 2 days at different correction rates. Serum sodium will be measured every 3 h from the beginning to 6 h, followed by every 6 h until 48 h. In addition, urine sodium and potassium levels will be measured at baseline and 24 h. The PP (Per Protocol) analysis will be applied to enrolled participants who is infused with 75-125% of total planned volume of 5% dextrose water.

Enrollment

144 estimated patients

Sex

All

Ages

18+ years old

Volunteers

No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Patients who visit the emergency department and in-patients over 18 years
  • Severe hypernatremia: glucose-corrected serum sodium ≥ 155 mmol/L
  • Written consent

Exclusion criteria

  • Arterial hypotension requiring inotropes or vasopressors (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg and mean arterial pressure < 70 mmHg)
  • Anuria or bilateral urinary outlet obstruction
  • Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1C > 9%) or glucose at baseline > 500 mg/dL or uncontrolled diabetic ketoacidosis or uncontrolled hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome
  • Decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) - Known LC with ascites or diuretic use or hepatic encephalopathy or varix
  • End-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy
  • Uncontrolled Heart failure (regardless of LVEF)
  • Women who are pregnant or breast feeding

Patients with the following conditions within 30 days prior to randomization:

  • History of cardiac surgery excluding PCA, acute myocardial infarction, sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, and admission for heart failure
  • Uncontrolled increase of intracranial pressure
  • The subjects judged by investigators to have difficulty continuing the trial were also excluded.
  • The case the subjects does not consent to the study

Trial design

Primary purpose

Treatment

Allocation

Randomized

Interventional model

Parallel Assignment

Masking

None (Open label)

144 participants in 2 patient groups

Rapid intermittent bolus group
Active Comparator group
Description:
A : males < 65 ; B : females < 65 or males ≥ 65 ; C : females ≥ 65 yrs <During the first 3 h> Primary treatment over 1h A: 5DW 8 B: 5DW 7 C: 5DW 6 mL/kg If undercorrected, Repeat the 5DW amount infused during primary treatment after 3 h <At 3-24 h> Modify protocol based on sNa at each time point (6/12/18/24 h) Check U/S ratio at 0 h undercorrection < 0.5: repeat the amount infused during primary treatment q 3 h ≥ 0.5: repeat the amount infused during primary treatment q 6 h target correction < 0.5: repeat the amount infused during primary treatment q 6 h ≥ 0.5: stop the infusion <At 24-48 h> Modify protocol based on sNa at each time point (30/36/42/48 h) Check U/S ratio at 24 h undercorrection < 0.5: repeat the amount infused during primary treatment q 3 h ≥ 0.5: repeat the amount infused during primary treatment q 6 h target correction < 0.5: repeat the amount infused during primary treatment q 6 h ≥ 0.5: stop the infusion
Treatment:
Drug: Dextrose 5% in water
Slow continuous infusion group
Active Comparator group
Description:
Participants will be divided into three groups same as above <During the first 3 h> Primary treatment A: 5DW 1.8 B: 5DW 1.57 C: 5DW 1.35 mL/kg/h Modify protocol as described below based on sNa measurement at 3 h undercorrection: maintain the infusion rate target correction: stop the infusion <At 3-24 h> Modify protocol based on sNa measurement at each time point (6/12/18/24 h) Check U/S ratio at 0 h • undercorrection < 0.5: increase the infusion rate to twice that of the primary treatment ≥ 0.5: maintain the infusion rate • target correction < 0.5: maintain the infusion rate ≥ 0.5: stop the infusion <At 24-48 h> Modify protocol based on sNa measurement at each time point (30/36/42/48 h) Check U/S ratio at 24 h • undercorrection < 0.5: increase the infusion rate to twice that of the primary treatment ≥ 0.5: maintain the infusion rate • target correction < 0.5: maintain the infusion rate ≥ 0.5: stop the infusion
Treatment:
Drug: Dextrose 5% in water

Trial contacts and locations

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Central trial contact

Seon Ha Baek, PhD; Sejoong Kim, PhD

Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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