Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab in the First Episode of Pediatric Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (RTXFIRPedINS)

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Fudan University

Status and phase

Phase 2


Steroid-Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome


Drug: Rituximab

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


The main objective is to demonstrate, from the initial episode of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children with standard prednisolone treatment, once complete remission has occurred, that the use of Rituximab (a single intravenous infusion of 375 mg/m2) may reduce the risk of subsequent relapse during 12-month of follow-up.

Full description

NS is the most frequent glomerular disease in children. Between 80% and 90% of children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) will relapse following an initial response to corticosteroids. Half of these children will experience frequent relapses (FRNS) or become steroid-dependent (SDNS). The results of multiple observational studies and randomized control trials have shown that Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the cluster of differentiation antigen 20 (CD20) antigen on B cells, is safe and effective for children with FRNS/SDNS without corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy. To the investigators' knowledge, Rituximab has never been investigated for the initial episode of NS with the aim to reduce the subsequent risk of relapse that is a major concern in the management of children with NS. Children aged 1-18 years with the first episode of the SSNS will be treated with a single intravenous infusion of Rituximab 375 mg/m2. The prednisolone at a dose of 2 mg/kg per day (maximum 60 mg in single or divided doses) for 6 weeks, followed by 1.5 mg/kg (maximum 40 mg) as a single morning dose on alternate days for the next 6 weeks; therapy is then discontinued.


44 patients




1 to 18 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • 1. Children between 1 and 18 years with Steroid-Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome
  • 2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at study entry.
  • 3. Remission at study entry
  • 4.CD20 positive cells in peripheral blood ≥1% total lymphocytes
  • 5.No immunosuppressive agents have been used within 3 months of enrollment, except for the use of corticosteroid to treat nephrotic syndrome.
  • 6. Provision of consent by a legal representative (parents or legal guardians) using a document approved by the institutional review board after receiving an adequate explanation regarding the implementation of this clinical trial. For children/youth ages 10-18, written assent is required using age-appropriate and background-appropriate documents.

Exclusion criteria

  • 1.Diagnosis of secondary NS
  • 2.Patients showing one of the following abnormal clinical laboratory values: leukopenia (white blood cell count ≤3.0*109/L); moderate and severe anemia (hemoglobin <9.0g/dL); thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100*1012/ L); positivity of autoimmunity tests (ANA, Anti DNA antibody, ANCA) or reduced C3 levels; Positive for hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen, HBs antibody, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody ; Positive for HIV antibody; Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) > 2.5× upper limit of normal value. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 2.5× upper limit of normal value.
  • 3. Presence or history of severe or opportunistic infections within 6 months before assignment; Presence of active tuberculosis or with a history of tuberculosis or in whom tuberculosis is suspected; Presence or history of chronic active infections such as Epstein-Barr virus and CMV virus; presence or history of active hepatitis B or hepatitis C or hepatitis B virus carrier. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other active viral infections
  • 4. Receipt of a live vaccine within 4 weeks before enrollment.
  • 5. Prior receipt of monoclonal antibodies of any type
  • 6. History of angina pectoris, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, or serious arrhythmia,or poorly controlled hypertension
  • 7. Presence or history of autoimmune diseases or vascular purpura.
  • 8. Presence or history of malignant tumor
  • 9. History of organ transplantation (excluding corneal and hair transplants).
  • 10. Patients with a known allergy to steroid and their excipients or to Rituximab and its excipients or to acetaminophen and its excipients or to cetirizine and its excipients or to the protein of murine origin
  • 11. Assessed to be unfit for participation by the investigators

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Single Group Assignment


None (Open label)

44 participants in 1 patient group

Experimental group
Drug: Rituximab

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Shen qian, PhD.MD.; Xu Hong, PhD.MD.

Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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