ERAS After Cholecystectomy in Kigali, Rwanda


Olivier Detry MD PhD




Gall Bladder Disease


Other: ERAS clinical pathway

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathway represents a peri-operative multimodal management aiming at a decrease in surgical aggression and an improved patient rehabilitation, in order to reduce postoperative morbidity, length of hospital stay and, as an important secondary consequence, overall costs. ERAS pathways have been successfully implemented in many surgical managements in the Western world, but very few data exist on ERAS in developing countries. This project aims at the prospective evaluation of ERAS pathway implementation in cholecystectomies in CHUK, Rwanda. The first 50 patients will be prospectively evaluated and compared to the last 50 patients who underwent cholecystectomy before ERAS pathway implementation.

Full description

All adult patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the CHUK and accepting to be included in the study and the ERAS protocol, will be informed of all steps of the ERAS pathway. Education and discharge plan will be discussed. A regular ERAS pathway will be proposed. All patients will be allowed to take a regular diet until 6h and carbohydrate loading or clear fluids until 2h before surgery. Thromboembolism prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparins will be administered according to patient's comorbidities. No premedication will be administered. Combined anesthesia technique will be used: general anesthesia added to local infiltration of the surgical incision. In all cases restricted intra-operative fluid administration (6-8 ml/kg/h) and prevention of hypothermia will be used during the procedure. Moreover, no opioids will be used during the whole perioperative period. Antibiotic prophylaxis will be given in agreement with the hospital protocol. Analgesia and prevention of nausea will be given. Immediate postoperative monitoring will be performed in the recovery room where the pain numeric rating scale (NRS) will be routinely evaluated by the anesthesiologist or the NPA. Laparoscopic approach with a 4-trocar technique will be the first choice when not contraindicated. No abdominal drainage, no nasogastric tube will be used, but, if necessary, it will be placed immediately during or after anesthesia and removed upon awakening. A bladder catheter will be placed if indicated and removed immediately after surgery. The ERAS anesthesia postoperative care will include: intravenous paracetamol or ketamine administration when necessary, avoidance of opioids, treatment of nausea and vomiting when necessary. Pain will be assessed every 4 h using NRS pain scale by nursing staff, and paracetamol + NSAID will be given if needed. Re-feeding will be authorized 2h to 4h after surgery with liquid diet and mobilization. Withdrawal of intravenous infusions will be performed at 6h post-operatively. Patient mobilization will be further encouraged and increased gradually. All meals will be consumed sitting at the table. At 24h after surgery, blood tests (FBC and CRP) will be performed and discharge authorized in case of normal vital signs and blood tests, absence of complications or symptoms, digestive function enabling the patient to eat without nausea or vomiting, return of intestinal transit with emission of gas (stool not required), autonomy to move and post-operative pain relief with oral analgesics. The patient will be given oral analgesia for at least 48 hours. After discharge, the surgical team will make follow-up controls by phone on day 3, 5, and 7, to detect any sign of complications during the first week. If no complaint, the outpatient clinic evaluation will be planned at postoperative 15 and 30. A last follow-up control will be performed by phone at day 90. Data will be collected for age, gender, indications for surgery, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, operative time, adverse events (pain, nausea and vomiting), length of hospitalization, and intra- and post-operative complications. The expenses of surgery and in-hospital care will be calculated and analyzed. After discharge, on days 3, 10, 15, 30, and 90, patients will report outcomes that will be recorded by Surgical Recovery Scale (SRS).


50 estimated patients




16 to 100 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • All adult patients undergoing scheduled elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in CHUK, Rwanda
  • Signed informed consent

Exclusion criteria

  • acute cholecystitis
  • ASA IV patients
  • absence of consent

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Single Group Assignment


None (Open label)

50 participants in 1 patient group

ERAS group
Experimental group
First 50 patients included in the ERAS pathway for cholecystectomy in CHUK, Rwanda
Other: ERAS clinical pathway

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Martin Nyundo, MD; Miguel Gasakure, MD

Data sourced from

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