Improvement on GMFCS Level of Patients With Cerebral Palsy Treated by Repeated Botulinum Toxin-A


Kocaeli University




Cerebral Palsy


Drug: Botulinum toxin type A
Other: Physical therapy

Study type


Funder types



KU GOKAEK 2017/90

Details and patient eligibility


The aim of this retrospective, monocenter, observational study is to evaluate the changes in GMFCS levels of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who received repeated Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections in the lower limb(s) with an integrated treatment approach in Kocaeli University Department of PMR and Izmit Rehabilitation Center.

Full description

It is generally agreed that children with CP reach their gross motor potential by the age of 3.5-5 and a child or young person over the age of 5 years will not improve their GMFCS level. BoNT-A is an important treatment in children with CP because it is safe in young children and allows combined treatment. The reduction in muscle tone by this selective treatment provides an opportunity to allow and optimize the effects of other treatments including orthoses, casting, conventional therapies and activity based functional trainings. For this reason, BoNT-A injections are always combined with other therapies in Kocaeli University Department of PMR and Izmit Rehabilitation Center. Adjunctive treatments in this department consists of serial casting, orthotics, physical therapy, occupational therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, special educational programs, non invasive brain stimulation with transcranial direct current, neurofeedback, biofeedback, electrical stimulation and other physical therapy modalities, activity based models including functional ambulatory training, constraint induced therapy, bilateral therapy, hippotherapy, music therapy by singing or playing percussive instruments or moving and dancing to music, and robotic rehabilitation. Individualized intensive combined treatment plan was applied by an appropriate neurorehab team to each patient within the department as a half day or full day program usually for 3 weeks starting 1 week or 10 days after BONT-A injections. In thıs retrospective, monocenter, observational study a software database program will be developed and all the present data about the demographic and clinic properties of the patients, all information about BoNT-A injections including safety and applied adjunctive treatments will be entered and reviewed.


503 patients




2 to 18 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • All children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy with respect to Rosenbaum criteria
  • Children who received at least 2 repeated BoNT-A injections to lower limb(s) as well as an integrated treatment approach (an intensive therapy protocol consisted of a half day or entire day program in Kocaeli University Department of PMR and Izmit Rehabilitation Center) within the last 10 years

Exclusion criteria

  • Children who did not receive repeated injections
  • Children who did not receive an intensive therapy protocol

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