Intervention for Pregnancy Related Pain


University of Idaho




Other Specified Pregnancy-Related Conditions


Other: Mulligan Concept Intervention
Other: Sham Mulligan Concept Treatment

Study type


Funder types



18-22QR-UI-PG76 (Other Grant/Funding Number)

Details and patient eligibility


Women in rural communities receive less access to prenatal care, and experience slightly higher rates of complications during pregnancy. A very prevalent pregnancy related complication is Pregnancy Related Pelvic Girdle Pain (PPGP), effecting up to 76% of all pregnant women. Historically, PPGP has been thought to originate from hormonal changes associated with pregnancy, but its cause is more likely due to loss of motor control and/or malpositioning of the pelvic bones. Despite growing interest and clinical awareness of the condition, treatment outcomes of PPGP are inconsistent and intervention studies are lacking. The goal of this proposal is to investigate a treatment modality with minimal risks and potential to be self-administered. The Mulligan Concept manual therapy technique aims to restore mechanical function of the lumbopelvic region and has yet to be measured in women with PPGP.

Full description

The long-term goal of this project is to develop an effective conservative treatment protocol that is easily accessible. The objective of this application is to determine if patients who are treated with Mulligan Concept manual therapy experience immediate and significant changes in pain and function. Our specific aims are: In women with PPGP, 1.) Determine if Mulligan Concept treatment produces immediate changes in pain and function, 2.) Determine whether the Mulligan Concept immediately restores or alters dysfunctional gait characteristics and pelvic girdle motor control, and 3.) Identify factors that mathematically predict treatment outcome. Our central hypothesis is that restoration of lumbopelvic positioning will result in immediate decrease in pain, increase in function, and improved gait mechanics. Volunteers in the 20th-34th week of pregnancy, ages 20-45 years, who are experiencing PPGP will be screened and randomly assigned into treatment or placebo group based on age, weight, height, gestational week and number of pregnancies. All participants will undergo a standardized examination, complete patient reported outcome measures, and perform a walking gait, sit to stand, and active straight leg raise tasks. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG recordings will be taken during performance of the tasks. The participants of the treatment group will receive a Mulligan Concept evaluation and treatment. Participants in the placebo group will receive only the Mulligan Concept evaluation. Participants will then repeat the same tasks and measures. The study will be conducted under a randomized triple blinded placebo trial design; the patients, researchers, and treating clinician will be blinded to group assignment. Independent sample t-tests will be conducted to determine if significant differences exist between the intervention and placebo group across several dependent variables. Regression analysis will be conducted in order to determine if intake factors mathematically predict treatment outcome.


36 patients




20 to 45 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

reported pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain

Exclusion criteria

  • orthopaedic or neurological problems with walking
  • prior surgery of the lumbar spine, pelvis, hip, or knee
  • fracture
  • known malignancy
  • active inflammation in the lumbar spine or pelvis
  • ankylosing spondylitis, Scheuermann's kyphosis, active polyarthritis, or severe osteoporosis
  • any pulmonary, cardiac, visual, auditory, or cognitive disorders
  • any other multi/co-morbidities that limit the volunteers ability to complete a gait and sit-to-stand task
  • does not receive consent from their maternity care provider
  • pain is associated with something other than pregnancy, or is experienced outside of pregnancy prior to the first pregnancy

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Triple Blind

36 participants in 2 patient groups

Mulligan Concept Intervention
Experimental group
Mulligan Concept Intervention, including Mobilizations with Movement intervention is administered. Up to 30 minutes total treatment time.
Other: Mulligan Concept Intervention
Sham Mulligan Concept Treatment
Sham Comparator group
Assessment procedures of the Mulligan Concept are followed, but no manual pressure is applied to the participant during treatment to provide a sham Mulligan Concept Treatment.
Other: Sham Mulligan Concept Treatment

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



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