The trial is taking place at:

Trovare Clinical Research | Bakersfield, CA

Veeva-enabled site

Ketorolac Applied by Continuous IV Infusion for Treatment of Moderately Severe Postoperative Pain Following Bunionectomy


NEMA Research

Status and phase

Phase 3


Pain, Postoperative


Drug: Morphine Sulfate
Other: Intravenous Placebo for NTM-001
Other: IV Placebo for Morphine
Drug: Ketorolac Tromethamine

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


This clinical study is a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, multi-center, active and placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic efficacy and safety of NTM-001 in subjects with moderately severe postoperative pain after bunionectomy surgery. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of NTM-001 to placebo. Intravenous (IV) morphine serves as an active comparator to determine assay sensitivity and support assessment of opioid-level analgesia for NTM-001. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability parameters will be descriptively compared between treatment arms.


360 estimated patients




18 to 64 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Written informed consent obtained prior to any study-related procedure being performed.
  • Male or female subjects between 18 and <65 years of age at time of consent.
  • Body weight ≥50 kg.
  • Physical status rated as ≤2 on the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) rating scale (Owens, Felts et al. 1978).
  • Scheduled to undergo primary unilateral first metatarsal bunionectomy.
  • Women must be postmenopausal, surgically sterile, abstinent, or practicing or agree to practice an effective method of birth control if they are sexually active before entry, throughout the study, and for 7 days after the last dose of study drug (effective methods of birth control include prescription hormonal contraceptives, intrauterine devices, double-barrier method, and male partner sterilization). Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) pregnancy test at screening and a negative urine pregnancy test before surgery.
  • Subject is willing and able to complete all study procedures including training on pain scales, follow instructions, communicate meaningfully with study personnel, and return for all visits as listed in the protocol.

Exclusion criteria

  • History of peptic ulcer disease, GI bleeding, perforation, or active peptic ulcer disease.
  • History of asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs.
  • History of, or suspected or confirmed, cerebrovascular bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, or incomplete hemostasis.
  • Increased risk of bleeding at the discretion of the Investigator based on prior/concomitant disease, laboratory values, medication or surgical complications.
  • Clinical laboratory values reflecting at least mild renal insufficiency as indicated by a creatinine clearance ≤89 mL/min.
  • Risk for renal failure due to volume depletion at the discretion of the Investigator.
  • Concomitant use of aspirin or NSAIDs.

History of seizure disorder or epilepsy, as suggested by the presence of any of the following:

  • Mild or moderate traumatic brain injury, stroke, transient ischemic attach, or brain neoplasm within 1 year of screening.
  • Severe traumatic brain injury, episode(s) of unconsciousness of more than 24 hours duration, or posttraumatic amnesia of more than 24 hours duration within 15 years of screening.
  • History of alcohol or drug abuse in the Investigator's judgement based on subject history and physical examination.
  • Significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression.
  • At least moderately impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh >6), or subjects with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN).
  • Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of MAOIs within the last 14 days.
  • The subject is not on a stable dose (at least 2 weeks prior to Screening Visit) of medications that may lower the seizure threshold (e.g., anti-psychotic agents) or which impact the serotonergic system (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants).
  • Evidence of significant anemia (indicated by hemoglobin concentration ≤8 g/dL).
  • Evidence of active infections that may spread to other areas of the body (e.g., osteomyelitis, pyogenic infection of the hip, Hepatitis B or C, or other overt infections) or a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 or 2.
  • History of malignancy within 2 years prior to the start of the study, with the exception of basal cell and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • History of systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, vasculitis, vasculopathy, or deep vein thrombosis.
  • Uncontrolled or poorly controlled post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, psychiatric, or other significant medical conditions.
  • Chronic systemic steroid therapy, excluding inhalers or a 1-time intraoperative dose, within 4 weeks before screening.
  • History of pending litigation due to pain or disability.
  • Clinically significant disease that, in the Investigator's opinion, may affect efficacy or safety assessments.
  • Employees of the Investigator or study site with direct involvement in the proposed study or other studies under the direction of that Investigator or study site, including family members of the employees or the Investigator.
  • Received an experimental drug or used an experimental medical device within 30 days before screening or have participated in a previous study of ketorolac.
  • Contraindications to, or history of allergy or hypersensitivity to ketorolac and/or morphine and their excipients.
  • A positive COVID-19 test (rapid antigen test) or COVID-19 related symptoms at screening and/or at check in of Visit 2 (Surgical Period).
  • Subjects who are planning on receiving a COVID-19 vaccine during the study duration.

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Quadruple Blind

360 participants in 3 patient groups, including a placebo group

NTM-001 Treatment Arm
Experimental group
NTM-001 loading dose of 12.5 mg administered over approximately 60 seconds, followed by a continuous IV infusion at a rate of 3.5 mg/h for 24h, by a pre-programmed infusion pump. Subjects will also receive placebo to IV Morphine (injections).
Drug: Ketorolac Tromethamine
Other: IV Placebo for Morphine
Morphine Treatment Arm
Active Comparator group
A single IV morphine bolus (4 mg) every 4h for up to 24h. Subjects will also receive placebo to NTM-001.
Other: Intravenous Placebo for NTM-001
Drug: Morphine Sulfate
Placebo Treatment Arm
Placebo Comparator group
Subjects randomized will receive placebos of both active treatments concomitantly. Placebo to NTM-001: Placebo "loading dose" applied over approximately 60 seconds, followed by a continuous IV infusion at a rate of 3.5 mL/h for 24h by a pre-programmed infusion pump. Placebo to IV morphine injections: A single IV placebo bolus every 4h for up to 24h.
Other: IV Placebo for Morphine
Other: Intravenous Placebo for NTM-001

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Roshna Noor

Data sourced from

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