Low Dose Caudal VS Dorsal Penile Nerve Block for Postoperative Analgesia After Circumcision


Ain Shams University




Pain, Postoperative


Procedure: Caudal nerve block /neuroaxial
Procedure: Combined caudal and dorsal penile nerve block
Procedure: Dorsal penile nerve block

Study type


Funder types



FMASU MS 573/ 2021

Details and patient eligibility


in order to eliminate fear and anxiety. Regional techniques are more effective than systemic opioids, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and acetaminophen for postoperative analgesia in circumcision, The most preferred techniques are dorsal penile nerve block and caudal block. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of post operative analgesia and complications among dorsal penile nerve block, caudal block and the combination of both. Patients and Methods: Our study was carried out to compare the effectiveness, duration of post-operative analgesia, and the complications among dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB), caudal nerve block (CNB) and the combination of both. This study will carrey out on 81 male patients, aged from 3-12 years old \& undergoing circumcision. The patients were divided into 3 groups, each is composed of 27 patients; group 1 including DPNB patients, group 2 including CNB patients and group 3 for combined block. This study compared between the three groups regarding the intra-operative vital data (HR,BP), post-operative VAS scores and the complications (nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, itching, constipation \& CNS depression).

Full description

Cases were subdivided into three groups: Group 1: included dorsal penile block patients. Group 2: included caudal block patients. Group 3: included combined block patients. Circumcision was performed under general anesthesia and dorsal slit technique was used. Study procedure: General anesthesia was induced and maintained by inhalation of sevoflurane in oxygen mixed with air gas flow. A 22-G intravenous (i.v.) cannula was placed after induction. Spontaneous respiration was maintained via a selected laryngeal mask airway, and the inhaled sevoflurane was modified and maintained as 0.8 to 1.0MAC. Block techniques: Technique of the caudal block The patient was placed in lateral decubitus position for blind caudal epidural block. A line was drawn to connect the bilateral posterior superior iliac crests and used as one side of an equilateral triangle; then the location of the sacral hiatus was approximated by palpating the sacral cornua as 2 bony prominences, the sacral hiatus was identified as a dimple in between. A needle was inserted at 45 degrees to the sacrum and redirected if the posterior surface of sacral bone was contacted. A subjective feeling of loss of resistance suggests piercing the SCL but was associated with a miss rate up to 26% even in experienced hands. The "whoosh test," performed by auscultation at the thoracolumbar region with a stethoscope while injecting 2 mL of air, had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% in adults. Palpating for subcutaneous bulging on rapid injection of 5 mL air or saline had a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 44%. The inaccuracy of using blind technique for caudal epidural injection in adults, even confirmed by various tests, is clearly evident. Drugs and doses used: 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% Bupivacaine (diluted by saline solution 0.9). Technique of Dorsal penile nerve block: Under aseptic technique and under ultrasound guidance. A 'hockey-stick' probe was used, covered by transparent sterile dressing. The probe was placed vertically over the pubic symphysis and the base of the penile shaft. With adjustment of the probe, a sagittal view of the penile shaft was produced. Scarpa's fascia was seen as a hyperechoic line superficial to the penile shaft. Under real-time guidance, the needle was inserted and advanced until its tip laid deep to Scarpa's fascia (i.e., within the subpubic space), where local anesthetic was deposited. The local anesthetic solution injected was 0.5% bupivacaine in a recommended volume. (2 ml up to 3 years and an additional 1 ml for each3 years up to maximum 6 ml). Combined block: The caudal block was performed then the patient was placed in supine position and the DPNB was done .


81 patients




3 to 12 years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Age: 3-12 years.
  • ASA I & II.

Exclusion criteria

  • Patient's refusal.
  • Contraindications to regional blocks as bleeding disorders and skin infections.
  • Drug hypersensitivity.
  • Failure of achieving block.

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Triple Blind

81 participants in 3 patient groups

dorsal penile block patients
Active Comparator group
Procedure: Dorsal penile nerve block
caudal block patients
Active Comparator group
Procedure: Caudal nerve block /neuroaxial
combined block patients
Active Comparator group
Procedure: Combined caudal and dorsal penile nerve block

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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