Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Emotional and Behavioural Problems of Students With Visual Impairment


Fatima Jinnah Women University




Behavior Problem
Emotional Problem


Behavioral: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Current study will be conducted on the Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Emotional and Behavioural Problems of Students with Visual Impairment. Mindfulness-based Intervention that is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) will be used in the current study which is adapted and translated in Urdu language; the pilot trial of MBSR will be conducted after adaptation and translation. The present study will be conducted in two phases * First phase of the study would be a cross-sectional survey in which the researcher will conduct a baseline assessment to identify psychosocial predictors such as psychological distress, parental acceptance and rejection, social support, and mindfulness which are associated with the emotional and behavioural problems of students with visual impairment. Further emotional and behavioural problems of the students with visual impairment will identify. * The second phase of the research would be a Randomized Controlled Trial in which students with Visual Impairment who has scored high on psychosocial predictors and emotional \& behavioural problems would be randomly assigned to intervention \& control groups to get the MBSR training. After the successful training post-assessment would be conducted to check the efficacy of MBSR. * The current study will be conducted in Rawalpindi Islamabad after obtaining permission from the relevant authorities. * Data would be collected from the students with visual impairment and their respective parents.

Full description

The study is designed to assess the Emotional and Behavioural Problems (EBPs) of Students with Visual Impairment studying at special education schools for impaired vision and to evaluate the relationship between the scores of psychosocial predictors that are associated with EBPs and selected demographic variables of these students. According to a literature review among all types of disabilities, a high occurrence of psychological disorder was found in VI children. So, the present study aimed to assist students with visual impairment in controlling the occurrence of different emotional and behavioural problems. Additionally, the current study will be advantageous for instructors, coaches, and policymakers to consider the role of educational psychologists in special school settings. Visual impairment can cause problems in daily life, but a person with sound mental health can better deal with it. So, the present study will contribute a lot to society by improving the life quality of these special children. Students with visual impairment in their school settings will utilize the practice of MBSR to reduce stress and to increase their emotional and adaptive behaviours. The purpose of current research is to integrate mindfulness practices in special school settings to provide the behavioural support for adolescents with visual disabilities so that they can be more successful both socially and academically. Sample The present study will be conducted with students who will be Visually Impaired (partial or complete). Data will also be collected from their respective parents. The sample will be taken from different schools of blinds, centers, and special schools in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. The age group of samples will range from 13 to 17 years. Purposive sampling will be used and those participants will be selected who will be available and volunteer to participate at the time of data collection. Data will be collected in one-on-one interviews by oral administration of questionnaires. MBSR will be translated and adapted into Urdu language. Permission to translate into Urdu language will be taken from the relevant authority. In the first phase, participants will be initially asked about demographic variables. The researcher would identify the psychosocial predictors of emotional and behavioural problems of students with Visual Impairment based on the scores of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), Parental Acceptance and Rejection Questionnaire (Child PARQ), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale-Adolescents (MAAS-A). Further emotional and behavioural problems of the students with visual impairment will identify by SDQ Self and SDQ Parent report form scores. Participants will be assured about the confidentiality of the data and its findings that will only be used for the cause of the research project. In the second phase cohort would be identified from the participants who would score high on DASS-21, Child PARQ, SDQ Self, and SDQ Parent report form and low on MSPSS & MAAS-A. They would be screened out as potential cohorts for Randomized Control trials (RCT). Participants would be randomly assigned to interventional and control groups by using the random number method. Participants who would be assigned to the interventional group will be exposed to the Urdu-translated and adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training. Students who would be assigned to the interventional group will receive 8 weeks of therapeutic intervention however the students who are randomly assigned to the control group will be given no intervention. The MBSR training program consisted of 8-week group sessions with a duration of 50 to 90 minutes each. Each week will focus on a particular theme related to the emotional and behavioural problems of students with Visual Impairment. After the successful completion of 8 weeks of MBSR training both groups will appear for post-assessment. The same aforementioned measures will be used in post-assessment.


100 estimated patients




13 to 17 years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Parents and their children who will be in the age range of at least 13-17 years will be included in the present study. All students who will participate in this study will be partially or completely visually impaired.
  • Participants who scored higher on DASS-21, PARQ, SDQ self, and SDQ parent report form and low on MSPSS and MAAS-A in phase I will be included in phase II of the study i.e. Randomized Control Trial.

Exclusion criteria

  • Exclusion criterion will be; students and parents who would not be willing to participate and who refuse to give consent. Other disabilities in students will not be considered (e.g. hearing disability or other physical disabilities).
  • Participants who have gone through critical medical conditions like psychological treatment or surgery or have co-morbid problems would be excluded.

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Double Blind

100 participants in 2 patient groups

Intervention Group
Experimental group
A structured MBSR training for this study will be given to the intervention group of students with visual impairment. The intervention will include body scan, sitting meditation, yoga, breathing exercises, guided mindfulness, loving kindness, etc exercises to improve the emotional and behavioural problems of students with visual impairment.
Behavioral: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
Wait-list Control Group
No Intervention group
The Wait-list control group will receive no intervention. This group will serve as a comparison group to evaluate the specific effect of the mindfulness based intervention.

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Tehmeena Hanif, Ph.D Scholar; Dr. Iram Gul, Ph.D

Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

Clinical trials

Find clinical trialsTrials by location
© Copyright 2024 Veeva Systems