Mother's Milk Messaging: Evaluation of a Bilingual Application (APP) to Support Initiation and Exclusive Breastfeeding in New Mothers (MMM)

University of Colorado Denver (CU Denver) logo

University of Colorado Denver (CU Denver)

Status

Completed

Conditions

Breastfeeding

Treatments

Behavioral: Breastfeeding messages
Behavioral: Injury Prevention Messages
Behavioral: Social Support Group (Facebook)

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT02958475
16-1740

Details and patient eligibility

About

This study is being conducted to evaluate the breastfeeding support program utilizing bilingual English-Spanish tailored text messages and online support to support exclusive and continuous breastfeeding for new mothers--comparing texting alone, texting with an online support group to those with usual care. The cost involved in moderating the online groups and providing bidirectional consultation when needed will be evaluated and qualitative feedback from a subset of mothers in both intervention groups will be evaluated to determine what was effective, as well as suggestions for improvement of the messaging program.

Full description

Women of child-bearing age are in the generation most likely to use texting to communicate, and most own a cellular phone, and that cell phones have been demonstrated to be efficacious in increasing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) medication compliance and smoking cessation, and in improving diabetes management, the investigators consider this may be a promising strategy to increase breastfeeding. The investigators developed theoretically-based text message content along with breast feeding informational and video content designed for delivery via closed private groups on social media based on formative work and then conducted a pilot study to text the effects of interactive messaging sent over a 12 week period (i.e. 6 weeks prior and after birth) that targeted barriers (e.g. insufficient milk, pain/sore nipples, breastfeeding in public, among others) on exclusivity and continuation of breastfeeding. The investigators innovative approach, called Mother's Milk Messaging (MMM) specifically targets low-income and minority mothers and has the potential to reach unprecedented numbers of mothers, to be standardized for later scalability, and to be cost-effective. While Text4Baby texting application uses a similar approach, the text messages are not interactive and they do not address specific issues with breastfeeding. The device's social media content facilitates private, peer and expert support for breastfeeding in real time on a channel preferred by first time mothers. Applying a theoretically-based framework, the investigators developed content stemming from Dr. Maya Bunik's previous published Breastfeeding Telephone Triage and Advice. Content was adapted for delivery via a mobile application (App) with attention to an Integrated Theory of mobile Health (mHealth) using best practices for app design for health promotion using social and mobile technology. The content was modified to facilitate engagement with content using technology, utilizing communication theories such as Gain and Loss Framing and Elaboration theory, and theories to support social networking and social support, along with behavioral health theories such as the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. The MMM app has three main elements: text messages via push notification are stored and searchable on the app, access to a breastfeeding social support group on Facebook, and access to videos and written material to facilitate knowledge acquisition and skills building. The text messages are targeted at specific theoretical constructs such as outcome expectations/attitudes, barrier self-efficacy, reinforcing a message using peripheral (expert) opinion, eliciting a sense of social currency or providing a cue-to-action. The breastfeeding social support group on Facebook will be moderated to facilitate posting of shared experiences. Short videos, photographs, and written blurbs on related topics are posted on the Facebook page to reinforce the messaging and content of the texts. After a successful pilot study of MMM the investigators are ready to test the benefits of supporting new mothers with breastfeeding using the investigators bilingual mobile phone application (app) and online support program.

Enrollment

346 patients

Sex

Female

Ages

18 to 40 years old

Volunteers

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Women who are first time mothers
  • Women ages 18-40
  • Who can converse and write in English and/or Spanish
  • Who reside in the U.S.
  • Who are expecting a normal singleton birth
  • Who are pregnant
  • Have access to a computer connected to the Internet
  • Have access to a mobile device that can receive text messages and access the Internet (smart phone)

Exclusion criteria

Decisionally challenged

Trial design

Primary purpose

Health Services Research

Allocation

Randomized

Interventional model

Parallel Assignment

Masking

Single Blind

346 participants in 3 patient groups

Attention Control
Experimental group
Description:
Participants in control arm will receive normal standard messages about infant injury prevention.
Treatment:
Behavioral: Injury Prevention Messages
Breastfeeding Messages plus Social Support
Active Comparator group
Description:
Participant will receive between 5-7 text messages weekly through push notifications to their phone. The text messages are targeted at specific theoretical constructs such as outcome expectations/attitudes, barrier self-efficacy, reinforcing a message using peripheral (expert) opinion, eliciting a sense of social currency or providing a cue-to-action. In addition they will be able to download the MMM app, which will store text messages received. Additionally, participants in this arm will be able to link within the app to a private Facebook page. Participants can access this page through their app or directly via Facebook where they can view, comment, and share in response to posts. The MMM app has three main elements: text messages via push notification are stored and searchable on the app, access to a breastfeeding social support group on Facebook, and access to videos and written material to facilitate knowledge acquisition and skills building.
Treatment:
Behavioral: Social Support Group (Facebook)
Behavioral: Breastfeeding messages
Breastfeeding Messages only
Active Comparator group
Description:
Participant will receive between 5-7 text messages weekly through push notifications to their phone. The text messages are targeted at specific theoretical constructs such as outcome expectations/attitudes, barrier self-efficacy, reinforcing a message using peripheral (expert) opinion, eliciting a sense of social currency or providing a cue-to-action.
Treatment:
Behavioral: Breastfeeding messages

Trial contacts and locations

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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