Orange Juice And Sugar Intervention Study (OASIS)

University of California (UC) Davis logo

University of California (UC) Davis




Type2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cardiovascular Risk Factor
Metabolic Syndrome
Insulin Sensitivity


Other: Naturally-sweetened orange juice
Other: Sugar-sweetened beverage

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


The objectives of this proposal are to address the gaps in knowledge regarding the metabolic effects of consuming orange juice, the most frequently consumed fruit juice in this country, compared to sugar-sweetened beverage.

Full description

Specific Aims: There is considerable epidemiological evidence that demonstrates associations between added sugar/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk for or prevalence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, and gout. Especially concerning is recent evidence from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III that demonstrates that there is increased risk of CVD mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles (Yang, 2014). Even the US mean added sugar intake, 15% of daily calories, was associated with an 18% increase in risk of CVD mortality over 15 years. The results from the investigator's recently completed study (1R01 HL09133) corroborate these findings (Stanhope, 2015). They demonstrate that supplementing the ad libitum diets of young adults with beverages containing 0, 10, 17.5 or 25% of daily energy requirement (Ereq) as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) affects lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for CVD in a dose response manner. Specifically, levels of nonHDL-cholesterol(C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and postprandial triglycerides (TG) increased linearly over a 2-week period with increasing doses of HFCS. Furthermore, even the participants consuming the 10% Ereq dose exhibited increased levels of these risk factors compared to baseline. These and similar results have helped to lead to reductions in soda consumption in this country, and new dietary guidelines and FDA food labeling requirements to promote reductions in added sugar consumption. However, there are gaps in knowledge about other sugar-containing foods that lead to public confusion concerning healthier options for soda, and impede further progress in implementing public health policies that will promote further reductions in soda consumption. One such food is naturally-sweetened fruit juice. The amount of sugar in fruit juice is comparable to the amount in soda. Because of this, a consumer seeking answers on the internet will find many articles in which experts state or suggest that the effects of consuming fruit juice are as detrimental as or even worse than those of soda. However, in contrast to soda, fruit juice contains micronutrients and bioactives that may promote health. Therefore the consumer can also find numerous articles on the internet where the health benefits of fruit juice and these bioactives are extolled. There are a limited number of clinical dietary intervention studies that have directly compared the metabolic effects of consuming fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverage, and their results are not conclusive. Thus we will pursue the following Specific Aims: Specific Aim 1: To compare the weight-independent effects of consuming 25%Ereq as orange juice or sugar-sweetened beverages for 4 weeks on risk factors for CVD and other chronic disease in normal weight and overweight men and women. Specific Aim 2: To mechanistically compare the weight-independent effects of consuming 25%Ereq as orange juice or sugar-sweetened beverages on metabolic processes associated with the development of CVD and T2D in normal weight and overweight men and women. Specific Aim 3: To relate the changes assessed under Specific Aims 1 and 2 to the changes in the urinary levels of metabolites and catabolites of the main flavanones in orange juice, hesperetin and naringenin.


56 patients




18 to 50 years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion Criteria: men and pre-menopausal women Body mass index: 20-35 kg/m2 Body weight > than 50 kg Self-reported stable body weight during the prior six months

Exclusion Criteria:

Fasting glucose >125 mg/dl Evidence of liver disorder (AST or ALT >200% upper limit of normal range) Evidence of kidney disorder (>2.0 mg/dl creatinine) Evidence of thyroid disorder (out of normal range) Systolic blood pressure consistently over 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure over 90 mmHg Triglycerides > 400 mg/dl LDL-C > 160 mg/dl in combination with Chol:HDL > 4 Hemoglobin < 10 g/dL Pregnant or lactating women Current, prior (within 12 months), or anticipated use of any hypolipidemic or anti-diabetic agents.

Use of thyroid, anti-hypertensive, anti-depressant, weight loss medications or any other medication which, in the opinion of the investigator, may confound study results Use of tobacco Strenuous exerciser (>3.5 hours/week at a level more vigorous than walking) Surgery for weight loss Diet exclusions: Food allergies, special dietary restrictions, routine consumption of less than 3 meals/day, routine ingestion of more than 2 sugar-sweetened beverages or 1 alcoholic beverage/day, unwillingness to consume any food on study menu Veins that are assessed by the R.N.s as being unsuitable for long-term infusions and multiple blood draws from a catheter.

Pre-existing claustrophobia or metal implants that preclude magnetic resonance imaging Any other condition that, in the opinion of the investigators, would put the subject at risk

Trial design

Primary purpose

Basic Science



Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Single Blind

56 participants in 2 patient groups

Naturally-sweetened orange juice
Experimental group
Naturally-sweetened orange juice Form: Beverage Daily dosage: 25% of daily energy requirement Frequency: Divided into 3 servings/day Duration: 4 weeks
Other: Naturally-sweetened orange juice
Sugar-sweetened beverage
Active Comparator group
Sugar-sweetened beverage Form: Beverage Daily dosage: 25% of daily energy requirement Frequency: Divided into 3 servings/day Duration: 4 weeks
Other: Sugar-sweetened beverage

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Vivien Lee, B.S.; Kimber L Stanhope, Ph.D.

Data sourced from

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