Pom-dex Versus Pom-Cyclo-dex in MM Patients With Biochemical or Clinical Relapse, During Lena Maintenance Treatment (PO-3887)

F

Fondazione EMN Italy Onlus

Status and phase

Terminated
Phase 3

Conditions

Multiple Myeloma

Treatments

Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Drug: Dexamethasone
Drug: Pomalidomide

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT03440411
PO-CL-MM-PI-003887

Details and patient eligibility

About

The combination lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) is an active treatment for Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients, both at diagnosis and at relapse. Pomalidomide, is an immunomodulatory molecule (IMID), derivative of thalidomide, developed to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of the parent molecule. Pomalidomide and dexamethasone (pom-dex) proved to be an effective and safe treatment in MM patients refractory to lenalidomide and refractory/intolerant to bortezomib. The addition of chemotherapy to novel drugs has been evaluated both at diagnosis and at relapse. The combination of pomalidomide-cyclophosphamide-prednisone proved to be safe and effective in relapsed/refractory MM patients. The combination pomalidomide-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone (pom-cyclo-dex) was tested in a phase II study in patients with relapsed and refractory MM, demonstrating a good tolerability using pomalidomide at the dose of 4 mg. Pom-cyclo-dex resulted in a superior response rate and Progression-Free Survival (PFS) compared to pom-dex. The increased hematologic toxicities, as a result of the addition of oral cyclophosphamide, were manageable. With an overall response rate of 65% the combination demonstrated a promising efficacy.The first aim of our trial, is to compare the combination of pom-cyclo-dex vs pom-dex. Relapsed myeloma is defined as previously treated myeloma that progresses and requires the initiation of salvage therapy. According to International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) recommendation, biochemical relapse is defined as an increase of ≥ 25% of tumor burden from lowest value, without any CRAB feature (CRAB is defined as the onset of clinical symptoms: hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia and bone lesions) and detected in 2 consecutive determinations. Clinical relapse requires one or more direct indicators of progressive disease and end organ dysfunction (CRAB features). Treatment at relapse should start in case of clinical relapse or a significant paraprotein increase (doubling of M-component in 2 months). In case of biochemical relapse the standard is observation only, as in case of asymptomatic MM at diagnosis. However, a recently published trial, showed improved PFS and OS for newly diagnosed asymptomatic patients treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in comparison with observation only. Our hypothesis is that similarly, in the relapse setting, patients may benefit from an early intervention, meaning a treatment at biochemical relapse and not only in case of clinical relapse or rapid increase of M-component.

Full description

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic disease of older adults, with a higher incidence in elderly patients: 26% are aged 65-74 years, and 37% are older than 75 years. The annual prevalence of MM is approximately 31 cases per 100,000 people in patients aged 65-74 years, and it increases to 46 cases per 100,000 people in patients aged ≥75 years. The prevalence of myeloma is likely to increase due to the extended survival and the growing life expectancy of the general population. Recently, the introduction of novel agents such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide and bortezomib, has changed the treatment paradigm of MM and extended survival. The prognosis of patients who are refractory to novel agents is especially poor. A retrospective study has recently demonstrated that patients with relapsed MM, who were refractory to bortezomib and were relapsed following, refractory to or ineligible to receive treatment with an IMiD, had a median overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) of 9 and 5 months, respectively. STUDY DESIGN When patients experience biochemical relapse during lenalidomide maintenance, they will stop lenalidomide, as established in the related experimental protocol. Afterwards, patients can be considered for the enrollment in the present study if all inclusion and exclusion criteria are met. This is a multicenter, randomized, open label phase III study designed to assess the safety and the efficacy of two different pomalidomide combinations as salvage treatment in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Patients will be evaluated at scheduled visits in up to 3 study periods: pre-treatment, treatment and long-term follow-up (LTFU). The pre-treatment period includes screening visits, performed at study entry. After providing written informed consent to participate in the study, patients will be evaluated for study eligibility. The screening period includes the availability of inclusion criteria described above. The treatment period includes administration of pomalidomide and dexamethasone in arm A and pomalidomide combined with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone in arm B. The response will be assessed after each cycle. Patients will be randomized to receive treatment at biochemical relapse (ARM I) or at clinical relapse (ARM II). The LTFU periods will start after development of confirmed progression disease (PD), all patients are to be followed for survival during the LTFU period every 3 months via telephone or office visit.

Enrollment

9 patients

Sex

All

Ages

18 to 80 years old

Volunteers

No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Patients >18 years and <80 years.
  • Patient is, in the investigator(s) opinion, willing and able to comply with the protocol requirements.
  • Patient has given voluntary written informed consent before performance of any study-related procedure not part of normal medical care, with the understanding that consent may be withdrawn by the patient at any time without prejudice to their future medical care.
  • Male patient agrees to use an acceptable method for contraception (i.e. condom or abstinence) for the duration of the study.

Female of childbearing potential agrees to use two acceptable methods for contraception [implant, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (IUS), medroxyprogesterone acetate depot, tubal sterilization, sexual intercourse with a vasectomised male partner only (vasectomy must be confirmed by two negative semen analyses), ovulation inhibitory progesterone-only pills (i.e. desogestrel)] or absolute and continuous sexual abstinence.

  • Patient has measurable disease, defined as follows: any quantifiable serum monoclonal protein value (generally, but not necessarily, ≥ 0.5 g/dL of M-protein) and, where applicable, urine light-chain excretion of >200 mg/24 hours; only in patients without measurable serum and urine M-protein levels: the difference between involved and uninvolved Free Light Chain (FLC) levels must be > 10 mg/dL. Less than 10% of oligo- or non-secretory MM patients with free light chains will be admitted to this study in order to maximize interpretation of benefit results.
  • Patient receiving lenalidomide maintenance therapy as part of first line treatment (concomitant use of prednisone is accepted) and has experienced a biochemical relapse, with evidence of progressive disease defined as an increase of 25% from lowest response value in any one or more of the following: serum M-component (absolute increase must be ≥0.5 g/100 ml) and/or urine M-component (absolute increase must be ≥200 mg per 24 hours) only in patients without measurable serum and urine M-protein levels: the difference between involved and uninvolved FLC levels must be >10 mg/dL (35).
  • Patient who received as first line treatment a bortezomib-based therapy, including lenalidomide maintenance during the same line of therapy, can be included in the trial.
  • Patient has a life-expectancy > 3 months
  • Patient has not a currently active malignancy, other than non melanoma skin cancer and carcinoma in situ of the cervix, and has not invasive malignancies within the past 5 years.
  • No history of allergic reactions attributed to study agents

Patient has the following laboratory values within 28 days before baseline day 1 of the cycle 1:

  • absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > 1 x 10^9/L
  • platelet count > 75 x 10^9/L
  • haemoglobin > 8 g/dl.
  • aspartate transaminase (AST): < 2 x the upper limit of normal (ULN).
  • alanine transaminase (ALT): < 2 x the ULN.

Exclusion criteria

  • Pregnant or lactating females.
  • Patient with Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) < 45 mL/minute
  • Patient with peripheral neuropathy ≥ Grade 2

Subject with any one of the following:

  • Congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association Class III or IV)
  • Myocardial infarction within 12 months prior to starting study treatment
  • Unstable or poorly controlled angina pectoris, including Prinzmetal variant angina pectoris
  • Any significant medical disease or conditions (e.g. pulmonary disease, infection) that, in the investigator's opinion, may interfere with protocol adherence or subject's ability to give informed consent or could place the subject at unacceptable risk.
  • Clinical active infectious hepatitis type A, B, C or HIV Acute active infection requiring antibiotics or infiltrative pulmonary disease
  • Contraindication to any of the required drugs or supportive treatments.
  • Known allergy to any of the study medications, their analogues, or excipients in the various formulations

Trial design

Primary purpose

Treatment

Allocation

Randomized

Interventional model

Factorial Assignment

Masking

None (Open label)

9 participants in 4 patient groups

ARM pom-dex Early (A-I)
Active Comparator group
Description:
Patients will receive treatment at biochemical relapse with pom-dex Pomalidomide: 4 mg/day on days 1-21 Dexamethasone: 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, 22 For 28-day cycles until progression or intolerance
Treatment:
Drug: Pomalidomide
Drug: Dexamethasone
ARM pom-cyclo-dex Early(B-I)
Experimental group
Description:
Patients will receive treatment at biochemical relapse with pom-cyclo-dex Pomalidomide: 4 mg/day on days 1-21 Cyclophosphamide: 50 mg every other day Dexamethasone: 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, 22 For 28-day cycles until progression or intolerance
Treatment:
Drug: Pomalidomide
Drug: Dexamethasone
Drug: Cyclophosphamide
ARM pom-dex Late (A-II)
Experimental group
Description:
Patients will be randomized at biochemical relapse and they will start treatment with pom-dex at the onset of CRAB symptoms/significant paraprotein increase. Pomalidomide: 4 mg/day on days 1-21 Dexamethasone: 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, 22 For 28-day cycles until progression or intolerance
Treatment:
Drug: Pomalidomide
Drug: Dexamethasone
ARM pom-cyclo-dex Late (B-II)
Active Comparator group
Description:
Patients will be randomized at biochemical relapse and they will start treatment with pom-cyclo-dex at the onset of CRAB symptoms/significant paraprotein increase. Pomalidomide: 4 mg/day on days 1-21 Cyclophosphamide: 50 mg every other day Dexamethasone: 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, 22 For 28-day cycles until progression or intolerance
Treatment:
Drug: Pomalidomide
Drug: Dexamethasone
Drug: Cyclophosphamide

Trial documents
2

Trial contacts and locations

1

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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