Prednisone Plus Chloroquine for the Treatment of Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly (LiHMS)

L

Lihir Medical Centre

Status and phase

Withdrawn
Phase 3

Conditions

Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly
Anaemia
Malaria

Treatments

Drug: prednisone induction - chloroquine
Drug: Chloroquine

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Other

Identifiers

NCT01785979
LiHMS

Details and patient eligibility

About

This randomized clinical trial will address a complication related to recurrent episodes of malaria in endemic areas - hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. We aim to assess the efficacy of chloroquine after prednisone-induction therapy compared to standard treatment of chloroquine alone in the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

Full description

Hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly (HMS) is a known chronic autoimmune complication in areas where malaria is endemic. Patients with HMS complain most commonly of abdominal swelling or pain from the enlarged spleen and the condition is defined using clear clinical and laboratory criteria. HMS appears benign in most patients when seen first but if untreated, it leads to severe anaemia and also acute bacterial infections. There is familiar and ethnic clustering suggesting genetic basis. High prevalence rates have been reported in certain areas of Papua New Guinea, and Venezuela, and HMS is also common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Sudan and Ghana. The treatment of HMS is still empirical since no randomized trials have been done so far. Long term anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis is deemed the mainstay of therapy, but the optimal drug-regimen and duration are unknown. Three to six months may pass before a response is observed, and relapses may occur when therapy is discontinued. On the basis of the observed benefit in experimental studies, glucocorticoids have been used for severe hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly in various case reports. Because these cases had a favourable outcome and the drug tolerability was good, prednisone has become an attractive therapeutic option for this disease. Central to the pathophysiology of HMS is the overproduction of Immunoglobulin M due to a functional CD8 T-cell defect and the consequent expansion and activation of B lymphocytes. Glucocorticoids may have an immediate effect due to inhibition of the sequestration of immunoglobulin coated red blood cells by the mononuclear phagocyte system and a later effect due to glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of antibody synthesis. We aim to assess the efficacy of chloroquine after prednisone-induction therapy compared to chloroquine alone in the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

Sex

All

Ages

18+ years old

Volunteers

No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Defining features of HMS including chronic massive splenomegaly (at least 10 cm below the costal margin); serum Immunoglobulin M elevated more than 3.1 g/L and high malarial antibody titres (above 640).
  • Evidence of the polyclonal nature of the lymphocytes by serum immunoglobulin free light chains.
  • Aged at least 18 years
  • Haemoglobin level of > 5 mg/d

Exclusion criteria

  • known allergy to chloroquine,
  • use of anti-malarial treatment within the preceding month,
  • suspected coexisting diseases in which glucocorticoids are contraindicated (e.g. diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcer disease or any acute infection as defined clinically), and
  • splenomegaly secondary to known infectious or haematological causes

Trial design

Primary purpose

Treatment

Allocation

Randomized

Interventional model

Parallel Assignment

Masking

None (Open label)

0 participants in 2 patient groups

Prednisone induction - chloroquine
Experimental group
Description:
0.5 mg/Kg daily of prednisone for 4 weeks after randomization, 0.25 mg daily for weeks 5-6, 0.15 mg daily for week 7 and 2.5 mg daily for week 8 and chloroquine at a fixed dose (300 mg base per week) for months 1-12
Treatment:
Drug: prednisone induction - chloroquine
chloroquine
Active Comparator group
Description:
chloroquine at a fixed dose (300 mg base per week) for months 1-12
Treatment:
Drug: Chloroquine

Trial contacts and locations

1

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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