Radiation Post-CAR T in Refractory Lymphoma

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Mass General Brigham




Hematologic Malignancy
Refractory Lymphoma


Radiation: Radiotherapy

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


This study is evaluating the safety and efficacy of using radiotherapy in participants who have refractory lymphoma shortly after receiving CAR T cell therapy (axicel or tisacel).

Full description

This research study is a Pilot Study, which is the first time investigators are examining this intervention after administration of CAR T cell therapy. This research study looks to systematically investigate the safety and efficacy of radiotherapy following CAR T cell therapy (axicel or tisacel) in refractory lymphoma. CAR T cell therapy involves genetically modifying T cells to target tumor cells for death. Radiotherapy is a standard treatment offered with refractory lymphoma and uses high-energy x rays, or particles, to destroy or damage cancer cells. Few have received CAR T cell therapy prior to radiation therapy and this study aims to gather more information on radiotherapy following CAR T cell therapy as a treatment option and its potential to improve participants immune system's response to cancer cells as well as its interaction with CAR T cell therapy to better treat refractory lymphoma. The research study procedures include screening for eligibility, enrollment, biopsy following radiation, post-treatment period, and long-term follow-up. Participants will receive radiotherapy at a dose and schedule determined by the study doctor. Participants will be followed for up to 24 months after completion of study treatment. It is expected that about 20 people will take part in this research study.


3 patients




18+ years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

* Patients must be able to undergo biopsy. Biopsy will be obtained for patients to exclude possibility of false negative residual FDG avidity on PET/CT that is not substantially increased relative to pre-CAR-T PET/CT. Exceptions are allowed for patients who have clearly progressive disease for whom delaying radiation therapy to obtain a biopsy may worsen outcome (such as cases of cord compression), and for patients for whom the risks of biopsy are high (such as patients with evidence for CNS involvement). * Biopsy-confirmed refractory disease within 30-90 days following commercial axicabtagene ciloleucel or tisagenlecleucel therapy for a hematologic malignancy (these include relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, high grade B-cell lymphoma, and DLBCL arising from follicular lymphoma). Of note, 'refractory' refers to patients who had early refractory disease after CAR-T cell therapy and not to patients who have received CAR-T for refractory disease, but had complete response to CAR-T cell therapy. * At least 1 measurable lesion according to the Lugano criteria1. Lesions that have been previously irradiated will be considered measurable only if progression has been documented following completion of radiation therapy * The following criteria pertain to pattern of progression: * Patients may have one refractory lesion without other residual or progressive disease as per PET/CT * Patients may have more than one refractory lesion, but with evidence for at least partial response of at least one other lesion as per PET/CT * Patients with more than one site of refractory disease without evidence for at least partial response of at least one other lesion are eligible if they are: * A. Symptomatic from a refractory lesion (such as cord compression or focal pain) or * B. Have disease that can locally affect the spinal canal or brain if left untreated. * Toxicities due to prior therapy must be stable and recovered to ≤ Grade 1 (except for clinically non-significant toxicities such as alopecia and prolonged cytopenias that are not expected to worsen during RT) if there is concern for overlap of anticipated radiation-related toxicity and toxicity from prior therapy due to where the RT field is located. * Age 18 or older * Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of less than or equal to 2. * Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.

Exclusion criteria

* Any medical condition likely to interfere with assessment of safety or efficacy of RT * Patients with more than one site of disease without any evidence for response to CAR T cell therapy who are not focally symptomatic due to progressive disease or do not have disease that can locally affect the spinal canal or brain if left untreated * Women of child-bearing potential who are pregnant because of the potentially dangerous effects of the preparative chemotherapy on the fetus or infant. Females who have undergone surgical sterilization or who have been postmenopausal for at least 2 years are not considered to be of childbearing potential. * In the investigators judgment, the subject is unlikely to complete all protocol-required study visits or procedures, including follow-up visits, or comply with the study requirements for participation.

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Single Group Assignment


None (Open label)

3 participants in 1 patient group

Experimental group
Participants must have received CAR-T infusion within the last 90 days prior to completing a study screening and enrollment process. Participants will be enrolled within 28 days after screening is complete and radiotherapy will occur within 14 days after study enrollment. Radiotherapy will be administered based on a dose and schedule pre-determined by the study doctor.
Radiation: Radiotherapy

Trial documents

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Chirayu G Patel, MD, MPH

Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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