Randomized Comparative Study of Fluconazole Versus Clotrimazole Troches in the Prevention of Serious Fungal Infection in Patients With AIDS or Advanced AIDS-Related Complex. (A Nested Study of ACTG 081)

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) logo

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Status and phase

Completed
Phase 3

Conditions

Candidiasis
Mycoses
HIV Infections

Treatments

Drug: Clotrimazole
Drug: Fluconazole

Study type

Interventional

Funder types

Industry
NIH

Identifiers

NCT00000676
ACTG 981
11504 (Registry Identifier)

Details and patient eligibility

About

To study the effectiveness, safety, and tolerance of fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches (lozenges) as prophylaxis (preventive treatment) against fungal infections in patients enrolled in ACTG 081 (a study of prophylaxis against pneumocystosis, toxoplasmosis, and serious bacterial infection). Primarily, to compare the rates of invasive infections by C. neoformans, endemic mycoses, and Candida. To compare the mortality rates due to fungal infections between two antifungal prophylactic treatments. Secondarily, to assess the effect of prophylaxis on the incidence of severe fungal infections, defined as invasive infections and esophageal candidiasis and less severe mucocutaneous infection. Serious fungal infections are significant complicating and life-threatening occurrences in patients with advanced HIV infection. Oropharyngeal candidiasis is found in almost all such patients, and causes pain, difficulty in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Similarly, esophageal candidiasis causes illness in the population. Cryptococcosis, endemic mycoses, and coccidioidomycosis also cause significant illness and death in AIDS patients. Once established, fungal infections in AIDS patients generally require continuous suppressive therapy because attempts at curing these infections are usually unsuccessful. Fluconazole has a number of characteristics that would make it a logical candidate to examine as a prophylactic agent in patients with advanced HIV infection. Animal studies have shown it to be prophylactic in models of candidiasis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Initial experience in patients with active cryptococcal meningitis appears favorable, and studies of oropharyngeal candidiasis show it to be effective.

Full description

Serious fungal infections are significant complicating and life-threatening occurrences in patients with advanced HIV infection. Oropharyngeal candidiasis is found in almost all such patients, and causes pain, difficulty in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Similarly, esophageal candidiasis causes illness in the population. Cryptococcosis, endemic mycoses, and coccidioidomycosis also cause significant illness and death in AIDS patients. Once established, fungal infections in AIDS patients generally require continuous suppressive therapy because attempts at curing these infections are usually unsuccessful. Fluconazole has a number of characteristics that would make it a logical candidate to examine as a prophylactic agent in patients with advanced HIV infection. Animal studies have shown it to be prophylactic in models of candidiasis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Initial experience in patients with active cryptococcal meningitis appears favorable, and studies of oropharyngeal candidiasis show it to be effective. AMENDED: 11/01/90 Sufficient numbers of patients will be enrolled from all centers starting at week 8 of participation in the parent study to achieve a total of 240 evaluable patients who will remain in the nested study for a maximum duration of 45 months. Enrollment will continue until all eligible and interested 081 patients are enrolled. Fungal prophylaxis will begin at the time of enrollment into the nested study and will continue until an efficacy or safety end point is reached, until withdrawal from the nested study, or until death. Original design: Patients included are those already enrolled in ACTG 081. Patients are enrolled from all centers at either week 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, or 32 of participation in the parent study. They are randomized to receive either oral fluconazole or clotrimazole troches. Prophylaxis continues until a serious fungal infection develops, the end of the parent study is reached (which is expected to be December 1991), the patient withdraws from either the nested or parent study, or the patient dies. Clinical examination is performed at 2 weeks and then monthly (or more if clinically indicated) for the duration of antifungal prophylaxis; the schedule of evaluation is the same as for the parent study. There is a 1-month postprophylaxis follow-up after discontinuation of prophylaxis for any reason.

Sex

All

Ages

18+ years old

Volunteers

No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Concurrent Medication:

Required:

  • Zidovudine (AZT).
  • Antipneumocystis prophylaxis.

Allowed:

Topical suppressive antifungal agents.

Eligibility requirements are:

  • Participation in NIAID ACTG 081.
  • No history of systemic fungal infection, including esophageal or systemic candidiasis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, or aspergillosis.
  • Willingness to sign an informed consent.
  • Transaminases < 5 x upper limit of normal.
  • Noncompliance will not be a reason for withdrawal of a patient from the study, unless patient refuses further treatment.

Allowed:

  • A history of oropharyngeal, vaginal or cutaneous candidiasis.
  • Dermatophyte infections (i.e., tinea pedis) at entry but not active candida infection. Sites of suspected dermatophyte involvement other than the feet should have candida excluded by culture.

Prior Medication:

Allowed:

Topical suppressive antifungal agents.

Exclusion Criteria

Co-existing Condition:

Patients with the following conditions or diseases are excluded:

  • History of systemic fungal infection, including esophageal or systemic candidiasis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, or aspergillosis.
  • Active systemic fungal infection at time of enrollment.
  • Active superficial fungal infection at time of entry. (Such patients may be treated with topical antifungal agents and may be randomized if they are in clinical remission 14 days after completion of such therapy.)

Concurrent Medication:

Excluded:

  • Amphotericin B.
  • Fluconazole.
  • Itraconazole.
  • SCH 39304.
  • Other systemic antifungals.

Patients with the following are excluded:

  • Previous or currently active systemic fungal infection.
  • History of allergy or intolerance to imidazole or azoles.
  • Positive serum cryptococcal antigen titer at any dilution.
  • Requiring multi-agent therapy for tuberculosis or for symptomatic Mycobacterium avium infection.

Trial contacts and locations

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Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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