Role of Metabolites in Nicotine Dependence (4) - 13

National Institutes of Health (NIH) logo

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Status and phase

Phase 2


Tobacco Use Disorder


Drug: Cotinine fumarate

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of cotinine with or without a transdermal nicotine replacement on tobacco withdrawal symptoms.

Full description

Previous studies have shown that cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, antagonizes some of the effects of nicotine. One study showed that nicotine eliminates some of the beneficial effects of the nicotine patch in reducing withdrawal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend these findings and examine the effects of various doses of cotinine base compared placebo on withdrawal symptom as well as drug preference among abstinent smokers while using the nicotine patch. We hypothesized that cotinine will reduce the beneficial effects of the nicotine patch in reducing withdrawal symptoms and that placebo will be preferred over cotinine during the forced drug choice period.




21 to 45 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

Male/Female subjects, aged 21-45 years inclusive, with a smoking history of at least 20 cigarettes daily (greater than or equal to 50) for at lease 1 year. Subject is in good health as verified by medical history, screening examination, and screening laboratory tests as outlined above. Subject has provided written informed consent to participate in the study and is motivated to stop smoking. Subject has experienced at least 4 withdrawal symptoms upon abstinence.

Exclusion criteria

History of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, sustained or episodic cardiac arrhythmias, symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, current peptic ulcer disease or any other medical condition which the physician investigator deems inappropriate for subject participation. Insulin-dependent diabetes. Pregnant or lactating, or not using adequate birth control methods. Requirement of any form of regular psychotropic medication (antidepressants, antipsychotics, or anxiolytics) and recent psychiatric history (less than 1yr). Chronic use of systemic steroids or antihistamines. Abuse of alcohol or any other recreation aor prescription drug (more tha 3 drinks per day or 21 drinks per week). Use of any other nicotine products, including smokeless tobacco, cigars and nicotine replacement products. Inability to fulfill all scheduled visits and examination procedures throughout the study period. History of schizophrenia or manic depressive disorder. Recent history of other psychiatric illness;less than 1 year since last episode of major depressive episode.

Trial contacts and locations



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