Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction Among Young Children in China (China SHARE)

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Boston University




Secondhand Smoke Exposure
Respiratory Illness
Smoking Cessation


Behavioral: SHI counseling

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Second hand smoking (SHS) is a health hazard to infants and children, in whom it is associated with lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, cough, middle ear infections and sudden infant death syndrome. Evidence from developed nations suggests that measures to reduce exposure to SHS can improve children's health outcomes; this has not been systematically studied in a developing country setting. The investigators hypothesize that implementation of a package of smoking hygiene intervention measures delivered by community health workers (CHWs) will reduce Chinese children's exposure to SHS and improve their respiratory health. To test this hypothesis, the investigators have identified three specific aims: (1) to obtain baseline data on second hand tobacco exposure among young children, health status of young children and smoking status of parents and other household members, (2) to generate preliminary effectiveness data for CHW-delivered SHI, and (3) to develop culturally appropriate biochemical measures to assess children's exposure to household SHS. The investigators propose to conduct this study in an urban district in Shanghai, China. After an initial assessment, the investigators will conduct a randomized controlled trial of households in a community, selected based on important study criteria, within the district. The investigators selected this design because it is most likely to produce a scientifically valid answer to our primary study question. All eligible smokers in the intervention group will receive behavioral counseling to address health hazards of SHS towards children, brief advice to quit or to adopt a no smoking policy around children, and educational pamphlets on the hazards of SHS, from a trained CHW in their community. A questionnaire will be used for data collection at the start and at 2 and 6 months. To assess the extent of total SHS exposure, children's urine cotinine (the indicator of nicotine) level will be measured at the first contact and at 2-and 6- months. To validate household members reported level of smoking the investigators will measure air nicotine levels of a sub-sample (10%) of households via passive monitors. The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the development of CHW-delivered interventions designed to reduce exposure to SHS and improve the respiratory health of children in a resource-poor community. If successful, the program can serve as a model for implementation in other developing country settings. Furthermore, successful results could also be used to draft guidelines for health promotion interventions, which could be implemented as a policy for all primary health care settings. Finally, the study, which would be the first of its type in a developing country setting, will form the basis for future research and program development in the area of SHS.


400 estimated patients




18 to 85 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • household member has smoked one or more cigarettes daily for the past 30 days as self reported;
  • household smoker smokes a total of at least 10 cigarettes per week at home in the presence of the child, as self reported;
  • smoker household member and the child are living together in the same household and will live together during the entire period of the study;
  • residents of the study community;
  • able to communicate in Mandarin Chinese or local Shanghai dialect; AND
  • has signed an informed consent form or given verbal consent (for those who cannot read and write).

Exclusion criteria

  • reported residential coal burning and confirmed by the interviewer;
  • households with breast-feeding child;
  • household members do not smoke at home;
  • smoker member does not live in the same household as the under 5 child;
  • non-local community resident; OR
  • not able to communicate in Mandarin Chinese or Shanghai dialect.

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Single Group Assignment


Single Blind

400 participants in 2 patient groups

Control group
No Intervention group
Control group will ONLY receive SHI after completion of the study
Intervention group
Experimental group
Intervention group will receive smoking hygiene intervention (SHI) at three individualized contacts.
Behavioral: SHI counseling

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from

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