Standard vs. 3-Dimensional Coronary Angiography: a Paired Comparison (3-DCA)


Antwerp Cardiovascular Institute Middelheim

Status and phase

Phase 4


Coronary Artery Disease


Procedure: 3-dimensional coronary angiography

Study type


Funder types



ACIM 2006-001

Details and patient eligibility


Aim of this study is to evaluate whether the length of coronary segments, assessed by an experienced operator, using the "optimal view" of standard 2-dimensional coronary angiography, is over/underestimated with respect to the one evaluated automatically with the help of a 3-dimensional coronary reconstruction model. Moreover, both techniques are compared with an "in-vivo" surrogate of the real length of the coronary segment under evaluation, i.e. an intra-coronary marker guide-wire, which is a wire with markers placed at fixed and known distance along its length in its distal (intra-coronary) part. Two hypotheses are tested: (1) the length of a coronary segment evaluated with a standard 2-dimensional "optimal view" over/underestimates the length assessed by a 3-dimensional coronary model that automatically detects the least foreshortened length of the segment under evaluation, and (2) the 3-dimensional model approximates more closely than standard 2-dimensional angiography, the real length of the segment detected by the marker guide-wire.

Full description

The potential to improve the accuracy of the assessment of the coronary tree by means of 3-D modeling reconstruction may lead to an evaluation of the coronary artery anatomy that approximates more correctly the real anatomy, thus subsequently leading to a more tailored diagnosis and therapy for the patients with ischemic heart disease. Aim of the current study is to assess whether a 3-D model of the coronary tree offers a less foreshortened and less operator-dependent evaluation of the length of the coronary arteries with respect to standard coronary angiography. Furthermore, for the first time "in-vivo", a comparison with the "real" length of the vessel will be performed using as "gold standard" an intra-coronary guide-wire with radiopaque markers at fixed and known distance one from the other along its distal part.


36 patients




18+ years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria


  • Age > 18 years.
  • Ability to give informed consent.

Clinical evidence of coronary artery disease:

  • recent (< 72 hours) acute myocardial infarction,
  • stable angina with documented positive stress test,
  • unstable angina with documented ischemia (positive ECG or troponin test or documented positive stress test).


  • Eligibility for PCI in at least one de-novo stenosis in a native coronary artery, after the index angiogram.
  • Planned PCI according to a previous coronary angiogram.

Exclusion criteria


  • Pregnancy.
  • Chronic or acute renal failure (serum creatinine > 1.8 mg/dL or hemodialysis).
  • Urgent procedure (a procedure carried out before the next referring day, for example for acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina refractory to medical therapy or cardiogenic shock).
  • Contraindications or known hypersensitivity to contrast media.
  • Enrollment in another study protocol.


  • Significant left main coronary artery disease.
  • PCI for a total occlusion of a major coronary vessel (LAD, LCX or RCA).
  • Extensive thrombotic burden in a coronary lesion (thrombus grade 3/4).
  • TIMI flow <3 distal to the lesion.

Trial design

36 participants in 1 patient group

No Intervention group
Paired comparison of 2 angiographic techniques
Procedure: 3-dimensional coronary angiography

Trial contacts and locations



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