Supplementation With B. Infantis for Mitigation of Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmunity (SINT1A)


Helmholtz Zentrum München




Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1


Dietary Supplement: B. infantis
Dietary Supplement: Placebo

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Investigator initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-centre primary intervention study to assess whether daily administration of B. infantis EVC001 from age 7 days to 6 weeks (+14 days) until age 12 months (+ 14 days) to children with elevated genetic risk for type 1 diabetes reduces the cumulative incidence of beta-cell autoantibodies in childhood.

Full description

The GPPAD-04 SINT1A study will evaluate whether early, regular supplementation with a daily dose of a probiotic can reduce the risk of developing beta-cell autoimmunity in children identified by GPPAD-02 as being genetically predisposed to developing type 1 diabetes. Children will be enrolled at age 7 days to 6 weeks (+14 days) and the study product (B. infantis EVC001 or Placebo) will be administered orally once per day from enrollment until age 12 months (+14 days).

The hypotheses is that administration of B. infantis may have a positive influence on the intestinal flora and thus have a regulating effect on the immune system. The study is designed to investigate whether pathogenic immune reactions as in type 1 diabetes but also in other diseases, such as celiac disease, can be reduced and if the disease can be prevented.

Children will be followed until age 3.5 - 6.5 years (2.5 - 5.5 years after end of treatment).

Throughout the study data will be collected by regular study visits, phone calls with the families and electronic questionaires.

Blood samples will be collected to investigate glucose, HbA1c, beta-cell autoantibodies, transglutaminase antibodies, vaccine responses, genetic susceptibility and mechanistic markers. Stool samples will be collected for further assessments such as colonization,microbiome, pH and calprotectin.

Exploratory outcomes (allergy, vaccine responses, stool microbiome, blood metabolomics, stool pH and calprotectin or site specific ancillary measurements) may be assessed or in part assessed on a portion of the participants after unblinding the study. They may not necessarily be included in the primary outcome analysis and publication.

GPPAD is committed to sharing of data in compliance with all applicable European and GPPAD Consortium Member State, Data Protection and Privacy Protection laws, rules and regulations.

Pseudonymized data of the GPPAD-04 SINT1A study will be available to the scientific community after the publication of the trial analysis, which is anticipated in 2028. The SINT1A data will be available upon request.


1,144 estimated patients




7 days to 6 weeks old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  1. Infants between the ages of 7 days and 6 weeks (+14 days in case of illness or COVID-19 related issues or unexpected delay in result reporting) at the time of randomisation.

  2. A 10% or higher genetic risk to develop multiple beta-cell autoantibodies by age 6 years:

    1. For infants without a first-degree family history of type 1 diabetes, high genetic risk is defined as a DR3/DR4-DQ8 or DR4-DQ8/DR4-DQ8 genotype and a genetic risk score that is in the upper 25th centile (>14.4) or a DR3/DR4-DQ8 genotype with a GRS between the upper 50th (14.0) and 25th centile and a GG genotype at the rs3763305 SNP. These represent around 1% of all newborns.
    2. For infants with a first-degree family history of type 1 diabetes, high genetic risk is defined as having HLA DR4 and DQ8, and none of the following protective alleles: DRB1*1501, DQB1*0503, DRB1*1303. These represent around 30% of infants with a first-degree family history of T1D.
  3. Written informed consent signed by the custodial parent(s).-

Exclusion criteria

  1. Any medical condition, concomitant disease or treatment that may interfere with the assessments or may jeopardize the participant's safe participation in the study, as judged by the Investigators.
  2. Preterm delivery < 36 weeks of gestation.
  3. Proven immunodeficiency.
  4. Any condition that could be associated with poor compliance.5. Diagnosis of diabetes at the time of recruitment

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Quadruple Blind

1,144 participants in 2 patient groups, including a placebo group

B. infantis
Active Comparator group
Activated B. infantis EVC001; Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis; 8 x 109 colony forming units (CFU) per day
Dietary Supplement: B. infantis
Placebo Comparator group
Lactose identical in appearance and taste to the active supplement
Dietary Supplement: Placebo

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Anette-G. Ziegler, Prof. Dr.; Peter Achenbach, Prof. Dr.

Data sourced from

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