The Natural History of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients (STORM)


University of Milano Bicocca






Other: Observational cohort study on the natural history of hospitalized SARS-COV-2 patients.

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


This is an observational study. The aim is to describe the natural history and clinical evolution over time of hospitalized patients affected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) infection, including the genetic pathology of the disease and improve therapeutic procedures.

Full description

BACKGROUND: As of the end of February 2020, the ASST of Monza, with its two hospital wards of Monza and Desio, has treated 1433 COVID+ patients, of which 507 have currently been discharged (35.4%) and 206 (14%) transferred to other Low-intensity care facilities. The importance of observational studies is now known in many fields of medicine and the "real life" data produced have become an integral part of the authorization dossiers by the competent authorities to govern the introduction of new drugs: in particular, in a disease such as that from COVID-19 in which the absence of specific anti-viral therapies prevents an "ad hoc" cure, it becomes fundamental to identify and validate systems of stratification of the risk of fatal events, in order to optimize health intervention measures. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The study protocol provides the collection of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic and laboratory data consistent with the objectives of the study (CORE DATA SET) to which other specific protocols and relative data will connect (DATABASE "leaf"). The data collection will be performed on eCRF (RedCap platform) and the database will have the "stem and leaf" structure, compatible with WHO indications regarding pandemic data collection. CORE DATA SET: The protocol presents two important aspects of innovation in its formulation and design: The "stem and leaf" structure will allow to collect all the core data of the study ("stem") capable of describing the primary objective, that is the natural history of the disease, thus providing an important contribution to knowledge, currently very scarce , the evolution of the disease; the extreme heterogeneity of the pathology itself, the methods of spreading the contagion and the problematic treatment of some particular patient populations, however impose the description and the potential validation, not only in the context of subgroup analyzes, but in studies dedicated, of the data collected The "stem and leaf" design could therefore answer both questions. BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE COLLECTION: The biological research areas that the protocol proposes to pursue are listed below: Study of genetic determinants of COVID-19 infection with the aim of identifying the bases of the different susceptibility in relation to age, sex and presence of co-morbidity; Study of the repertoire of B and T lymphocyte receptors and identification of the virus-specific sequences of the T receptor for the antigen with the aim of identifying the component of the viral genome relevant to the immune response with possible relapses for the development of a vaccine; Study of the activation of the inflammosome responsible for the abnormal and severe inflammatory response characteristic of patients with COVID-19 infection and serious lung complications with the aim of identifying possible specific targets of intervention against one or more inflammatory cytokines; Study of the serological response during the acute phase of the disease and convalescence with the aim of defining the possible state of protection from the disease itself; Study of the proteome with the aim of defining biomarkers capable of evaluate the risk of progression. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: For each specific protocol, the study design and statistical data analysis plan will be formulated according to the specific objectives. In general, in addition to the descriptive methods, statistical regression models and methods for the definition of prognostic scores will be used, with relative cross-validation, which will allow to evaluate both binary and survival outcomes (in a broad sense, of events considered in time).


1,433 estimated patients




18+ years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  1. Clinical and / or radiological diagnosis of lung infection with COVID-19;
  2. Positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Exclusion criteria

  1. Age less than 18 years

Trial design

1,433 participants in 1 patient group

Covid19 infection related patients
The patients enrolled in the study are all patients with clinical and microbiological diagnosis of COVID-19 infection hospitalized since February 23, 2020 at San Gerardo Hospital (ASST-Monza).
Other: Observational cohort study on the natural history of hospitalized SARS-COV-2 patients.

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Paolo Bonfanti

Data sourced from

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