Topical Nepafenac as Supplement for Diabetic Macular Edema


Universiti Sains Malaysia

Status and phase

Phase 4


Diabetic Macular Edema


Procedure: Laser
Drug: Topical Gutt Nepafenac 0.1%

Study type


Funder types



1001/PPSP/812064 (Other Grant/Funding Number)

Details and patient eligibility


Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a major cause of visual loss in patients with diabetes mellitus. The standard treatment is with focal/grid laser therapy. Topical nepafenac was used as an adjunct therapy for treatment of DME. The aim of this study is to compare the difference of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) at 3 months post treatment between combination therapy of laser and topical nepafenac and laser monotherapy in patients with DME.

Full description

Diabetes mellitus with its systemic complications has been an enormous health treat to the world population today. In the US, the ophthalmic related complications has been estimated to cause up to 4.2 million (28.5%) people in 2005 till 2008 to suffer from blindness. One of the most common causes of visual acuity loss in patients with diabetes mellitus is diabetic macular edema (DME). The gold standard of treatment for clinically significant macular edema (CSME), a form of DME, is through focal and grid laser as shown by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. The development of newer drugs such as anti vascular endothelial growth factors anti (VEGFs), an alternative to laser treatment, has become a topic of interest in the recent years. Other alternative to treatment of DME is steroid such as triamcinolone injection and dexamethasone injections. However, both anti VEGFs and steroids are expensive and not readily available in all centres. Both types of medications require repeated treatment and the route of administration through intravitreal also poses risk of endophthalmitis, lens injury, retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, increase in intraocular pressure and cataract. The pathophysiology of DME is not fully understood yet. It was suggested that it is likely to be a chronic low-grade inflammation. Through this theory, topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to treat DME. The investigators postulate that the addition of topical NSAIDs in patients receiving standard treatment of laser therapy may help to improve the outcome of patients with DME. It has the advantage of no needles involved, convenient, easy to use and minimal side effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of visual acuity and macular thickness at 3 months post treatment between laser monotherapy and combination of laser and topical nepafenac in DME.


47 patients




18 to 70 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with CSME
  • Aged 18 to 70 years old
  • Clear media (Able to perform OCT)
  • HbA1c less than 12% at 3 months

Exclusion criteria

  • CSME with severe Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR) or Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy(PDR)
  • Previous laser treatment
  • Previous ocular injury or surgery
  • History of taking topical or systemic anti inflammatory agents
  • Allergic to NSAIDs
  • Other ocular pathology (ARMD, Glaucoma, IPCV)
  • High myope

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


Single Blind

47 participants in 2 patient groups, including a placebo group

Experimental group
Patients with CSME treated with argon laser photocoagulation (focal/grid laser) and Topical Gutt Nepafenac 0.1% given 8 hourly interval for 3 months
Drug: Topical Gutt Nepafenac 0.1%
Procedure: Laser
Placebo Comparator group
Patients with CSME treated with argon laser photocoagulation (focal/grid laser)
Procedure: Laser

Trial contacts and locations



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