Toward Gender Aware VA Healthcare: Development and Evaluation of an Intervention

US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) logo

US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)




Women's Health


Behavioral: Caring for Women Veterans

Study type


Funder types

Other U.S. Federal agency


GEN 20-057

Details and patient eligibility


The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an educational program intended to raise staff awareness about women veterans and their health care needs and preferences.

Full description

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate a computerized program that would enhance Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employees� awareness of women veterans and their health-care needs. The program was designed to challenge negative stereotypes about female patients (gender-role ideology), increase empathy toward female patients� needs (gender sensitivity), and enhance knowledge regarding women veterans and aspects of their VHA care (knowledge). DESIGN/METHODS: Phases I involved generating content for the computerized interactive program. Phase II involved creating the 30-minute program. The Phase III evaluation of the program involved a two-group pretest�posttest�follow-up equivalent control group design at two facilities with a third facility comparison group. At the first two facilities, employees who provide either direct or ancillary care to patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment or the control group. Participants in the treatment group completed the program entitled Caring for Women Veterans. Participants in the control group and those at the third site completed a 30-minute program entitled Managing Stress. The data from the third site were included to test for infusion of the treatment effect within same-site groups. Gender awareness was evaluated at three time points using the Gender Awareness Inventory-VA (GAI-VA). Participants completed the GAI-VA several weeks prior to completing the computerized program (Time 1, n =339), immediately after completing the program (Time 2, n = 249), and approximately one month after the program (Time 3, n = 167). Participants also completed a qualitative evaluation of the program at Time 2. STATUS: Complete.


250 estimated patients




18+ years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

Participants must be VHA employees who have direct or indirect contact with patients.

Exclusion criteria

Employees who have no contact with patients.

Trial design

250 participants in 1 patient group

Arm 1
Other group
Behavioral: Caring for Women Veterans

Trial contacts and locations



Data sourced from

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