TURBt With Adjuvant Cryoablation to Treat Bladder Cancer

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Fudan University




Urinary Bladder Neoplasms


Drug: Epirubicin
Procedure: Cryoablation

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of applying cryoablation as an adjuvant therapy with TUR to treat bladder tumor.

Full description

Bladder tumors are one of the most commonly diagnosed urinary tumors in the world. Worldwide, it has been estimated that 429,800 new cases of and 165,100 deaths due to bladder tumor occurred in 2012. Transurethral resection (TUR) is the gold-standard treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). In muscle-invasive bladder cancer, TUR also plays a vital role as a bladder-sparing procedure regardless of whether it is applied as a monotherapy or in combination with chemo-radiotherapy. Whether radical resection of a tumor is initially performed can be essential in the treatment of bladder tumors. Incomplete TUR influences a patient's prognosis, regardless of whether it is part of a NMIBC treatment or part of bladder-sparing trimodal therapy. However, the quality of TUR is one of the greatest concerns in the treatment of bladder tumor. After initial TUR, approximately 70% of patients exhibit incomplete resection re-staging TUR. Of these patients, 30% exhibit residual tumors at the resection site. To solve this problem, a second TUR 4-6 weeks after the initial TUR is recommended by the guidelines, and these repeated TURs detect residual tumors in 26-83% of cases. The investigators sought to identify other therapies that can be combined with TUR to eliminate residual tumors. As a minimally invasive method, cryotherapy has been widely used for urological tumors, including prostate tumor and kidney tumor. With respect to bladder tumors, cryotherapy remains in the exploration phase. Only a few studies of the use of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous cryoablation for the treatment of bladder cancer have been reported. Unlike solid viscera, such as the prostate or kidney, the bladder exhibits the features of hollow viscera. Cryoablation through the transurethral approach could be possible if the safety of the procedure can be ensured. Our recent animal study conducted in a porcine model demonstrated the feasibility and safety of transurethral focal, full-thickness cryoablation. No perforations were observed during two eight-minute freeze cycles. Based on the success of transurethral cryoablation in animal experiments, the investigators performed this study to explore the safety and efficacy of cryoablation as an adjuvant therapy with TUR in the treatment of bladder tumors.


150 estimated patients




18 to 85 years old


No Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • Clinically diagnosed bladder tumor, stage T1 or T2
  • Number of lesions ≤ 3
  • Tumor size ≤ 3cm

Exclusion criteria

  • With other malignant diseases
  • T3 or above
  • Enlarged pelvic lymph node or distant metastasis
  • Poor overall condition

Trial design

Primary purpose




Interventional model

Parallel Assignment


None (Open label)

150 participants in 2 patient groups

TUR with Cryoablation
Experimental group
Patients received TUR to treat bladder cancer and immediate cryoablation was applied on the tumor bed in order to eliminate possible residual tumor. Two or three cycles of freeze could be give to fully cover the lesion. One cycle last three to five minutes base on our previous animal experiments.
Procedure: Cryoablation
TUR with instant instillation
Active Comparator group
Patients received TUR to treat bladder cancer and pirarubicin instillation was given within 24 hours after TUR. This is in accord with the current guideline.
Drug: Epirubicin

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Shenghua Liu, Doctor

Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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