Turkish Validity and Reliability of Pain Catastrophizing Scale-Child (PCS-C)


Kutahya Health Sciences University




Chronic Pain
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis


Other: Pain Catastrophizing Scale

Study type


Funder types




Details and patient eligibility


Perception of chronic pain and related disability; occurs through the interaction of physiological and psychological processes. Pain catastrophizing is a cognitive attribution style characterized by a negative mindset and magnification of pain. Catastrophizing in children has been associated with poor functioning and higher levels of pain. Catastrophizing during the transition to adulthood is defined as an important predictor of persistent pain and central sensitivity. The number of scales assessing pain and attitudes related to pain in children is quite low. In recent years, with the adaptation of the assessment scales used for adults to children or the development of new scales, the assessment of pain and pain-related attitudes in children has begun to be provided. Pain catastrophizing scale (PCS), in 1995 Sullivan et al. for the purpose of comprehensive assessment in adults experiencing pain-related disasters. In 2003, Crombez et al. showed the validity and reliability of the scale in school-age children. For predictive validity, the scale was administered to children with chronic pain, and it was reported to predict the severity of pain and pain-related disability. Pain Catastrophizing Scale-Child (PCS-C) scale; It is a self-report measure adapted from the Adult Pain Catastrophizing Scale used to assess negative thinking associated with pain. It contains 13 items rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 = "not at all true" to 4 = "very true". Substances; rumination (4 items, e.g. "When [my child] has pain, I can't get him out of my mind"), magnification (3 items, e.g. the child has pain], thinking about other painful events"), and helplessness (6 items, e.g. "[My child's]] When I have pain, I feel that I cannot continue"). Items are aggregated across subscales to obtain a total score ranging from 0 to 52; higher scores are related to higher catastrophizing attitude. The pain catastrophizing scale was originally developed in German and later validity and reliability studies were conducted in different languages. The aim of this study is to question the Turkish validity and reliability of the "Pain Catastrophizing Scale-Child (PCS-C)" scale.

Full description

Now, the study is continuing. 50% of the participant were evaluated.


75 patients




7 to 18 years old


Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion criteria

  • 7-18 years old
  • Agree to participate in the study
  • Whose symptoms and medications are stable,
  • Do not have a psychiatric disease that may affect cooperation,
  • Patients with JIA who do not have heart failure and lung pathology at a level that will affect their daily living activities will be included.

Exclusion criteria

Participants who cannot understand and follow the instructions will be excluded from the study

Trial contacts and locations



Central trial contact

Özge Çankaya, PhD

Data sourced from clinicaltrials.gov

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